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Timeline of Slovene history

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This is a timeline of key events in the history of Slovenia and the nations that lived and live on Slovene ethnic territory, mostly Slovenes. 1

History, unlike mathematics, is an imperfect science and can never be complete or totally impartial. (... like mathematics ...) [Ivan Kobal]

Table of contents

1300s BC

NOTE a theory about connections between the Veneti and Proto-Slovenes is believed to be speculative. This page won't discuss much of it, but it is at least worth mentioning it.

The neutrality of this page is disputed. See discussion here (/w/wiki.phtml?title=Timeline_of_Slovene_history&action=history)

1200s BC

1100s BC

  • Circa 1150 BC - The Veneti from Paflagonia[?], a region in today's northern Turkey on the Black Sea, continued East across Persia and Afghanistan after the defeat of Troy reach Punjab across the Khyber[?] mountain pass (1022 m). 2Z Homer talks about the Venets, and so do the Greeks, using the name Henetoi. Roman historians claim their leader was Antenor (Antenore), originated from Troy.
  • 1100 BC - The new combined nation, known until today by the name of Aryans or Hindi, was able to penetrate towards East to the river valley of the Ganges and conquered the whole area up to the Himalayas. A new vast country came into existence, which still today carries the name Hindustran (like Heneti - Veneti). India - actually Vindia - was born.

700s BC

300s BC

100s BC

0s

100s

200s

  • Circa 290 - Noricum is divided under Roman Emperor Diocletian (245-313, reigned 284-305) into Noricum ripense (along the Danube) and mediterranean (the southern mountainous district).

300s[?]

400s

  • Circa 400 - St. Jerome translates Slovene writings to Latin.

500s

  • Circa 500/550 to 570/592 - The ancestors of Slovenes settle in eastern Alps (Julian Alps, Karavanke), occupying an area more than twice the size of today's Slovenia.
  • Circa 551 - An Ostrogothic historian Jordanes writes in The origin and deeds of the Goths 3 about 3 nations 'Veneti' ('Venethi'), 'Sklavens' ('Sclaveni', 'Slevene' ?) and probably the east (or south Slavs), the bravest nation among them called Antes (Greek Antae, Ukrainian Anty, Slovene Anti). All his three terms might also be just synonyms for one nation. Jordanes actually states that Venethi are divided into three groups: Venets, Ants and Sklavens.
  • 568 - The Langobards from the margin of Pannonia break and move into Italy. The independent Slovene state appears in the Eastern Alpine area (provincia Sclaborum), latter named in sources as Sclauinia or Karantania.
  • 595 - The first mentioning of a Karantania state in muniments. One of them is in History of Langobards of Lombard chronicler Paul Diacon[?] (Other sources 620s). 2X

600s

700s

  • 745 - Karantania loses its independence and becomes a margraviate and tantamount part of the semifeudal Frankish empire later under the rule of king Charlemagne (742-814, reigned 771-814) due to pressing danger of Avar tribes from the east.

800s

900s

1000s

1200s

1300s

1400s

  • 1414 - The Habsburg Duke Ernest the Iron[?] thrones according to the ancient Karantanian ritual of installing dukes on the Duke's Stone and he addresses again as an archduke[?].
  • 1451 April 11 - Celje acquires town rights by orders from Celje count Frederic II (Friderik II).
  • 1461 - Ljubljana becomes the seat of the diocese.
  • 1473 - The city walls and defensive moat are build in Celje.

1500s

1600s

1700s

  • 1701 - The Philharmonic Society (Academia philharmonicorum) is established in Ljubljana.

1800s

  • 1809 - The Lower Carinthia incorporates to France as Dutchy of Carinthia was devided into two parts, Upper or Western Carinthia and Lower or Eastern.

1810s

  • 1813 - The Lower Carinthia is reconqured.

1830s

  • 1838 - First works, tracings on Slovene territory of a railway route Vienna - Trieste in a so called "South railway" (Južna železnica) begin.

1840s

  • 1845 - First works on the "South railway" between Celje and Ljubljana begin,
  • 1846 April 27- First locomotive of the "South railway" comes to Celje.
  • 1846 May 18 - Trial run of the first train on the "South railway" to Celje is performed.
  • 1846 June 2 - The "South railway" to Celje is open for public.
  • 1848 - The United Slovenia[?] (Zedinjena Slovenija), the first Slovene political programme rises.
  • 1848 April 18 - The Ljubljana railway station is finished.
  • 1849 August 18 - First locomotive arrives to the Ljubljana railway station.
  • 1849 September 16- First train of the "South railway" comes to Ljubljana.
  • 1849 September 19 - "South railway" to Ljubljana is ceremoniously opened.
  • 1849 - The Duchy of Carinthia is created as a separate crownland.

1850s

  • 1850 May 14 - Emperor Francis Joseph lays a foundation stone of the Trieste railway station.
  • 1851 - Society of St. Hermagoras (Mohorjeva družba) first Slovene publisher is established in Klagenfurt (Celovec), which publishes books in Slovene.
  • 1857 July 18 - The "Carinthian railway" between Maribor and Klagenfurt is being bult.
  • 1857 July 27 - The "South railway" is finished and opened.

1860s

  • 1862 November 12 - The railway line of the "Carintnhian railway" on the route Maribor - Vuzenica[?] is built.
  • 1863 - May 31 - The "Carinthian railway" is built
  • 1864 - The Kozler brothers establish the Pivovarna Union (The Union Brewery).
  • 1869 May 17 - Rally at Vižmarje[?] near Ljubljana gathers around 30.000 people where programme of the United Slovenia is demanded.

1880s

1890s

1900s

  • 1900 - Liberal middle class founds the first Slovene bank, The Credit bank of Ljubljana (Ljubljanska kreditna banka).
  • 1902 - First telephone is mounted in Celje.
  • 1907 - Electricity is used in a lead mine in Mežica[?].
  • 1907 - The Celje hall (Celjski dom) is built in Celje.
  • 1908 - The "Karavanke railway" is built.

1910s

1920s

  • 1920 June 4 - The Treaty of Trianon[?] with Hungary. Gradiščansko falls to Austria and Transmuraland[?] (Prekmurje) to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
  • 1920 July 13 - Croatian National hall in Pula[?] and Slovene national hall in Trieste are burried by Italian fascists.
  • 1920 August 14 - A safety agreement is signed between Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
  • 1920 October 20 - The outwitted Carinthian Plebiscite[?], where Slovenia loses a larger part of Carinthia province.
  • 1920 November 12 - The Treaty of Rapallo[?] between Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, where Slovenia again loses almost the whole province of Primorska, which is incorporated back again to the homeland after the 2nd World War. Italy also gets the whole Istria together with the Trieste region (Tržaško).
  • 1920 - The "Kulturbund" - a cultural and educational organization of German national minority is established. Later becomes the nazi organization, which operates in Yugoslavia as a fifth column.
  • 1921 June 28 - St. Vitus Day Constitution (Vidovdanska ustava) is adopted. It legalizes a monarchal regulation and centralism[?] in a new state and also the supremacy of the court and the Serb politics linked with it.
  • 1921 July - An allied treaty for insurance of a situation in East Europe, attained in the Paris Peace Conference, is made by Romania and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. This alliance supplements the safety agreement between Czechoslovakia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes and gets the name "Small entente".
  • 1922 - Julian March[?] (Julijska krajina) is incorporated to Italy.
  • 1923 March - Prefect of Julian March interdicts Slovene and Croatian language at the administration.
  • 1925 October 15 - Italian king issues a decree, which interdicts Slovene and Croatian language also at courts of justice.
  • 1927 - Founding of the TIGR at Goriško, Slovene anti-fascist organisation, first such European organization and a secret youth organization Borba (The fight) at the Trieste region.
  • 1929 January 6 - The king Alexander I. with a coup d'état dissolves the parliament and establishes the January 6th Dictatorship. He abolishes the St. Vitus Day constitution, the freedom of the press and the pooling rights.
  • 1929 October 3 - The king Alexander I. renames the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. All political parties are prohibited.

1930s

  • 1930 - Italian fascists discover some TIGR's cells and five members of TIGR (other sources of Borba) are killed at Bazovica[?].
  • 1931 May 9 - To hide a dictatorship the king Alexander I. initiates the bestowal constitution, which introduces the two-chamber parliament.
  • 1933 February 16 - The "Small entente" between Romania, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia.
  • 1934 February 9 - The "Balkan entente" between Romania, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Greece and Turkey.
  • 1934 October 9- The king Alexander I. Karadžordžević, reigned since 1921, is assassinated in Marseille together with a French foreign minister Louis Barthou by the Croatian extremist nationalists.
  • 1935 - Prime minister becomes Milan Stojadinović. His government begins to drop a traditional leaning against France and starts to connect economically and politically with Germany and Italy.
  • 1937 - The National Academy of Sciences and Arts is established in Ljubljana.
  • 1938 March 13 - Adolf Hitler annexes Austria to the German Third Reich. Slovenes in Austrian Carinthia practically become German citizens.
  • 1938 - Some members of TIGR plan an attempt on Mussolini's life, when he visits Kobarid.
  • 1938 December - Prime minister becomes Dragiša Cvetković. He signs an agreement with the leader of Croatian opposition Vlatko Maček about the foundation of Croatian banovina as the sole autonomous political and territorial unit in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. This agreement does not solve the national problem since it just distributes the authority among Serbs and Croats.

1940s

  • 1941 April 6 - German, Italian and Hungarian occupying forces occupy Slovenia and divide it into three parts. One of the darkest times of the Slovene history begins.
  • 1941 April 11 - German army occupies the Zasavje districts, where important pits, heavy industry and traffic crossroads lie.
  • 1941 April 17 - Royal Yugoslav army signs its surrender in Belgrade.
  • 1941 1[April 19]] - A Nazi politician and SS chief leader Heinrich Himmler visits Celje and among other he inspects the prison of the Stari pisker ("Old pot").
  • 1941 April 26 - An anti-fascist organization the Liberation Front of Slovene nation (Osvobodilna fronta Slovenskega ljudstva) (OF[?]) is established in Ljubljana. It is active on a whole Slovene ethnical territory, as well in Carinthia, Primorska region in the Venetian province and Slovene Raba[?] region (Slovene Slovensko Porabje, Hungarian Szlovén-vidék or Rába-vidék).
  • 1941 May 8 - A decision about the organization of the OF in the Zasavje districts in Trbovlje, Zagorje and Hrastnik[?] is adopted.
  • 1941 July - Armed resistance begins.
  • 1941 August 1 - The first Slovene partisan's unit in the Zasavje distrincts, the Revirje company (Revirska četa) is established at the Čemšeniška Alpine meadow, counting 70 fighters.
  • 1941 December 12 - A battle between German policemen and Slovene partisans near the village of Rovte.
  • 1943 September 16 - The supreme plenum of OF proclaims the association of Slovene maritime province (Slovensko primorje) to Slovenia.
  • 1945 May 5 - First postwar Slovene national government is named and elected by the SNOS (Slovene National Liberation Council) at the Bratina Hall in Ajdovščina.
  • 1945 June 12 - Trieste stops being under the administration of Yugoslav army.
  • 1947 February 10 - 21 countries sign the Paris peace conference with Italy.
  • 1947 September 15 - Free Trieste territory (STO - Svobodno tržaško ozemlje) is established in Ljubljana.
  • 1948 March 18 - Soviet Union calls back all its specialists from Yugoslavia. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union accuses the Communist Party of Yugoslavia[?] that it is not democratic, that it leans against imperial powers, that returns back to capitalism, and that is diverts from Marxism. The Informbiro[?] begins. Economic blockade and a threat of military intervention follow.

1950s

1960s

1970s

  • 1978 - The "South railway" is electrified.

1980s

1990s

  • 1990 December 12 - The national referendum where 88.2 % of electorate utter for the independent and sovereign republic of Slovenia.
  • 1991 June 25 - Slovenia declares its independence from SFR Yugoslavia (SFRJ).
  • 1991 June 27 - Slovenia removes Yugoslav border signs and marks its own. Yugoslav national army (JNA) sends 2,000 soldiers from the baracks across Slovenia to occupy the border and the Ten Day war begins.
  • 1991 June 27-July 6 - Ten Day war. JNA takes over border posts, but most of the JNA soldiers are blocked in baracks, where they are denied water and electricity.
  • 1991 July 6 - Ten Day war ends. JNA is set to leave Slovenia in 3 months. Less than 100 people died in the clashes, mostly JNA soldiers (57), but important precedent is set for the wars in the rest of SFR Yugoslavia
  • 1991 October 25 - Last troops of JNA leave Slovenia.
  • 1991 December 23 - Independent Slovenia gets a new, democratic constitution.
  • 1992 January 15 - All members of the European Union (EU) recognize Slovenia as a state.
  • 1992 April 7 - The United States recognize Slovenia as a state.
  • 1992 May 22 - Slovenia becomes a member of the United Nations.
  • 1992 December 6 - 1st presidental elections. Milan Kučan[?] becomes the president for the period 1992-1997 with 795012 votes (63,93 %) from 8 candidates.
  • 1993 May 14 - Slovenia is accepted to the Council of Europe.
  • 1997 November 23 - 2nd presidental elections. Milan Kučan again becomes the president for the period 1997-2002 with 595877 votes (55,57 %) from 8 candidates.
  • 1998 January 1 - Slovenia becomes a non-permanent member of UN Security Council.

2000s

  • 2004 May 1 - Expected date for the Slovenia's entrance to the EU.

See also:


Notes:

1 It clearly shows that 'exactly' 1246 ~ 3 × 400 Years have passed for this small nation to be somehow in a foreign Jewish-like Babylonian 'slavery' on a state's scale-view. But as Prešeren says: "No Devil, but the Neighbour shall be a Borderer".
2X See also Talk:Moravia and Subject page Moravia. (Temporary but interesting)
2Y Some modern sources imply that Veneti and Etruscans were highly connected and it is not known yet which nation influenced on each other. We can also freely say that Etruscans can be somehow the predecessors of the Slovenes. (More on this to come)
2Z The discovery of an expert Catalan archaeologist Pere Bosch-Gimpera.
3 See English translation of Charles C. Mierow: http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/%7Evandersp/Courses/texts/jordgeti

External links



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