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Table of Chinese monarchs

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Below is a list of Chinese sovereigns. Between the Qin and the Qing dynasty sovereigns who ruled an unified China were known as Emperor - huang di 皇帝 huang2 di4. Before the Qin, the title of a sovereign was wang 王 wang2 which is translated as king.
Only the most recognized posthumous or temple names were used for all tables of sovereigns and referencing. For example, many kings of the Ten Kingdoms in the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms had tiresome posthumous names consisted of 10 to 20 Chinese characters. Why bother quoting them while only clear referencing is needed.



Sovereigns of Xia Dynasty
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號)
Convention: posthumous name
Note: 1) all dates are approximate until the Duumvirate when first accurate dating of Chinese history began. Refer to Zhou dynasty for more info.
Yu|禹 yu3 or Xia Yu|夏禹 xia4 yu3 or Da Yu|大禹 da4 yu3
Qi|啟 qi3
Tai Kang|太康 tai4 kang1
Zhong Kang|仲康 zhong4 kang1
Xiang|相 xiang4
Shao Kang|少康 shao4 kang1 or Xia Shao Kang|夏少康 xia4 shao4 kang1
Zhu|杼 zhu4
Huai|槐 huai2
Mang|芒 mang2
Xie|泄 xie4
Bu Jiang|不降 bu4 jiang4
Jiong|扃 jiong1
Jin|廑 ( Putonghua: jin3 or Guoyu: jin4 )
Kong Jia|孔甲 kong3 jia3
Gao|皋 gao1
Fa|發 fa1
Jie|桀 jie2 or Xia Jie|夏桀 xia4 jie2 or Luu Gui|履癸 luu3 gui3



Sovereigns of Shang Dynasty
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號)
Convention: posthumous name
Note: 1) all dates are approximate until the Duumvirate when first accurate dating of Chinese history began. Refer to Zhou dynasty for more info. 2) Personal names of most of the Shang sovereigns were unknown. The following names were most likely posthumous owing to frequent appearances of the Heavenly Stems (Tian Gan|天干 tian1 gan1).
Tang|湯 tang1 or Shang Tang|商湯 shang1 tang1
Wai Bing|外丙 wai4 bing3
Zhong Ren|仲壬 zhong4 ren2
Tai Jia|太甲 tai4 jia3
Wo Ding|沃丁 wo4 ding1
Tai Geng|太庚 tai4 geng1
Xiao Jia|小甲 xiao3 jia3
Yong Ji|雍己 yong1 ji3
Tai Wu|太戊 tai4 wu4
Zhong Ding|仲丁 zhong4 ding1
Wai Ren|外壬 wai4 ren2
He Dan Jia|河亶甲 he2 dan3 jia3
Zu Yi|祖乙 zu3 yi3
Zu Xin|祖辛 zu3 xin1
Wo Jia|沃甲 wo4 jia3
Zu Ding|祖丁 zu3 ding1
Nan Geng|南庚 nan2 geng1
Yang Jia|陽甲 yang2 jia3
Note: As Shang finally settled down at Yin (殷 yin1). The period of Shang Dynasty starting from Pang Geng (盤庚 pang2 geng1) is also frequently referred to as the Yin Dynasty.
Pang Geng|盤庚 pang2 geng1
Xiao Xin|小辛 xiao3 xin1
Xiao Yi|小乙 xiao3 yi3
Wu Ding|武丁 wu3 ding1
Zu Geng|祖庚 zu3 geng1
Zu Jia|祖甲 zu3 jia3
Lin Xin|廩辛 lin3 xin1
Kang Ding|康丁 kang1 ding1
Wu Yi|武乙 wu3 yi3
Tai Ding|太丁 tai4 ding1 or Wen Ding|文丁 wen2 ding1
Di Yi|帝乙 di4 yi3
Di Xin|帝辛 di4 xin1 or Zhou|紂 zhou4 or Zhou Xin|紂辛 zhou4 xin1 or Zhou Wang|紂王zhou4 wang2
Note: King Zhou could also referred to as adding Shang (商 shang1) in front of any of his names.



Sovereigns of Zhou dynasty 1122 B.C.-256 B.C.
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns
Convention: "Zhou" + posthumous name
Note: all dates are approximate util the Duo when first accurate dating of Chinese history began. Refer to Zhou dynasty for more info.
Xi (Western) Zhou dynasty 1122 B.C.-771 B.C.
武王 wu3 wang2[?] Ji Fa|姬發 ji1 fa1 1122 B.C.-1116 B.C.
成王 cheng2 wang2[?] Ji Song|姬誦 ji1 song4 1115 B.C.-1079 B.C.
康王 kang1 wang2[?] Ji Zhao|姬釗 ji1 zhao1 1078 B.C.-1053 B.C.
昭王 zhao1 wang2[?] Ji Xia|姬瑕 ji1 xia2 1052 B.C.-1002 B.C.
穆王 mo4 wang2[?] Ji Man|姬滿 ji1 man3 1001 B.C.-947 B.C.
共王 gong1 wang2[?] Ji Yi-Hu|姬繄扈 ji1 yi1 hu4 946 B.C.-935 B.C.
懿王 yi4 wang2[?] Ji Jian|姬(喜replaces隹in 難) ji1 jian1 934 B.C.-910 B.C.
孝王 xiao4 wang2[?] Ji Man|姬辟方 ji1 pi4 fang1 909 B.C.-895 B.C.
夷王 yi2 wang2[?] Ji Xie|姬燮 ji1 xie4 894 B.C.-879 B.C.
厲王 li4 wang2[?] Ji Hu|姬胡 ji1 hu2 878 B.C.-841 B.C.
The Duumvirate 841 B.C.-828 B.C.[?]
宣王 xuan1 wang2[?] Ji Jing|姬靜 ji1 jing4 827 B.C.-782 B.C.
幽王 you1 wang2[?] Ji Gong Sheng|姬宮湦 ji1 gong1 sheng1 781 B.C.-771 B.C.
Dong (Eastern) Zhou dynasty 770 B.C.-256 B.C.
平王 ping2 wang2[?] Ji Yi Jiu|姬宜臼 ji1 yi2 jiu4 770 B.C.-720 B.C.
桓王 huan2 wang2[?] Ji Lin|姬林 ji1 lin2 719 B.C.-697 B.C.
春秋時代 (chun1 qiu1 shi2 dai4) Spring and Autumn Period 722 B.C.-481 B.C.
莊王 zhuang1 wang2[?] Ji Tuo|姬佗 ji1 tuo2 696 B.C.-682 B.C.
Li Wang|釐王 li2 wang2 or Xi Wang|(僖 or 禧) 王 (xi1 or xi3) wang2 Ji Hu Qi|姬胡齊 ji1 hu2 qi2 681 B.C.-677 B.C.
惠王 hui4 wang2[?] Ji Lang|姬閬 ji1 ( Guoyu: lang3 or Putonghua: lang4) 676 B.C.-652 B.C.
襄王 xiang1 wang2[?] Ji Zheng|姬鄭 ji1 zheng4 651 B.C.-619 B.C.
頃王 qing3 wang2[?] Ji Ren Chen|姬壬臣 ji1 ren2 chen2 618 B.C.-613 B.C.
匡王 kuang1 wang2[?] Ji Ban|姬班 ji1 ban1 612 B.C.-607 B.C.
定王 ding4 wang2[?] Ji Yu|姬瑜 ji1 yu2 606 B.C.-586 B.C.
簡王 jian3 wang2[?] Ji Yi|姬夷 ji1 yi2 585 B.C.-572 B.C.
靈王 ling2 wang2[?] Ji Xie Xin|姬泄心 ji1 xie4 xin1 571 B.C.-545 B.C.
景王 jing3 wang2[?] Ji Gui|姬貴 ji1 gui4 544 B.C.-521 B.C.
悼王 dao4 wang2[?] Ji Meng|姬猛 ji1 meng3 520 B.C.
敬王 jing4 wang2[?] Ji Gai|姬丐 ji1 gai4 519 B.C.-476 B.C.
元王 yuan2 wang2[?] Ji Ren|姬仁 ji1 ren2 475 B.C.-469 B.C.
貞定王 zhen1 ding4 wang2[?] Ji Jie|姬介 ji1 jie4 468 B.C.-442 B.C.
哀王 ai1 wang2[?] Ji Qu Ji|姬去疾 ji1 qu4 ji2 441 B.C.
思王 xi1 wang2[?] Ji Shu|姬叔 ji1 shu2 441 B.C.
考王 kao3 wang2[?] Ji Wei|姬嵬 ji1 wei2 440 B.C.-426 B.C.
威烈王 wei1 lie4 wang2[?] Ji Wu|姬午 ji1 wu3 425 B.C.-402 B.C.
戰國時代(zhan4 guo2 shi2 dai4) Period of the Warring states 403 B.C.-221 B.C.
安王 an1 wang2[?] Ji Jiao|姬驕 ji1 jiao1 401 B.C.-376 B.C.
烈王 lie4 wang2[?] Ji Xi|姬喜 ji1 xi3 375 B.C.-369 B.C.
顯王 xian3 wang2[?] Ji Bian|姬扁 ji1 bian3 368 B.C.-321 B.C.
慎靚王 shen4 jing4 wang2[?] Ji Ding|姬定 ji1 ding4 320 B.C.-315 B.C.
赧王 nan3 wang2[?] Ji Yan|姬延 ji1 yan2 314 B.C.-256 B.C.
惠王 hui4 wang2[?] ? 255 B.C.-249 B.C.
Note: nobles of the Ji family proclaim Hui Wang as the succesor to the dynasty after Luoyang fell to Qin. However the resistance did not last long when Qin army advanced southwards. So Zhou Nan Wang was widely considered as the last emperor of Zhou.



Sovereigns of Qin Dynasty 221 B.C.-207 B.C.
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns
Convention: "Qin" + posthumous name
Note: Qin Zhao Shang Wang (秦昭襄王 qin2 zhao1 xiang1 wang2) had already been ruling Qin for 51 years when Qin anniliated Zhou Dynasty; however the other six warring states were still independent regimes. Historiographers thus used the next year (the 52nd year of Qin Zhao Shang Wang) as the official continuation from Zhou Dynasty therefore so should we. Qin Shi Huang Di was the first Chinese sovereign proclaiming himself "Emperor".
Zhao Xiang Wang|昭襄王 zhao1 xiang1 wang2 Ying Ze|嬴則 ying2 ze2 or Ying Ji|嬴稷 ying2 ji4 255 B.C.-250 B.C.
Xiao Wen Wang|孝文王 xiao4 wen2 wang2 Ying Zhu|嬴柱 ying2 zhu4 250 B.C.
Zhuang Xiang Wang|莊襄王 zhuang1 xiang1 wang2 Ying Zi Chu|嬴子楚 ying2 zi5 chu3 249 B.C.-247 B.C.
始皇帝 shi3 huang2 di4 Ying Zheng|嬴政 ying2 zheng4 246 B.C.-210 B.C.
Er Shi|二世 er4 shi4 Ying Hu Hai|嬴胡亥 ying2 hu2 hai4 209 B.C.-207 B.C.
Zi Ying was often referred using personal name or Qin Wang Zi Ying (秦王子嬰 qin2 wang2 zi5 ying1)
Did not exist Ying Zi Ying|嬴子嬰 ying2 zi5 ying1 207 B.C.



Han Dynasty Sovereigns
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: "Han" + posthumous name
Western Han Dynasty 206 B.C.-9 AD
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Liu Bang (劉邦 liu3 bang1) 206 B.C.-195 B.C. Did not exist
Hui Di (惠帝 hui4 di4)[?] Liu Ying (劉盈 liu3 ying2) 194 B.C.-188 B.C. Did not exist
Shao Di (少帝 shao4 di4) Liu Gong|劉恭 liu3 gong1 188 B.C.-184 B.C. Did not exist
Shao Di (少帝 shao4 di4) Liu Hong|劉弘 liu3 hong2 184 B.C.-180 B.C. Did not exist
Wen Di (文帝 wen2 di4)[?] Liu Heng (劉恆 liu3 heng2) 179 B.C.-157 B.C. Houyuan[?] (後元 hou4 yuan2) 163 B.C.-156 B.C.
Jing Di (景帝 jing3 di4)[?] Liu Qi (劉啟 liu3 qi3) 156 B.C.-141 B.C. Chngyuan[?] (中元 zhong1 yuan2) 149 B.C.-143 B.C.
Houyuan[?] (後元 hou4 yuan2) 143 B.C.-141 B.C.
Wu Di (武帝 wu3 di4)[?] Liu Che (劉徹 liu3 che4) 140 B.C.- 87 B.C. Jianyuan[?] (建元 jian4 yuan2) 140 B.C.-135 B.C.
Yuanguang[?](元光 yuan2 guang1) 134 B.C.-129 B.C.
Yuanshuo[?] (元朔 yuan2 shuo4) 128 B.C.-123 B.C.
Yuanshou[?] (元狩 yuan2 shou4) 122 B.C.-117 B.C.
Yuanding[?] (元鼎 yuan2 ding3) 116 B.C.-111 B.C.
Yuanfeng[?] (元封 yuan2 feng1) 110 B.C.-105 B.C.
Taichu[?] (太初 tai4 chu1) 104 B.C.-101 B.C.
Tianhan[?] (天漢 tian1 han4) 100 B.C.-97 B.C.
Taishi[?] (太始 tai4 shi3) 96 B.C.-93 B.C.
Zhenghe[?] (征和 zheng1 he2) 92 B.C.-89 B.C.
Houyuan[?] (後元 hou4 yuan2) 88 B.C.-87 B.C.
Zhao Di (昭帝 zhao1 di4)[?] Liu Fu Ling (劉弗陵 liu3 fu2 ling2) 86 B.C.- 74 B.C. Shiyuan[?] (始元 shi3 yuan2) 86 B.C.-80 B.C.
Yuanfeng[?] (元鳳 yuan2 feng4) 80 B.C.-75 B.C.
Yuanping[?](元平 yuan2 ping2) 74 B.C.
Chang Yi Wang (昌邑王 chang1 yi2 wang2) Liu He (劉賀 liu3 he4) 74 B.C. Yuanping[?](元平 yuan2 ping2) 74 B.C.
Xuan Di (宣帝 xuan1 di4)[?] Liu Xun (劉詢 liu3 xun2) 73 B.C.- 49 B.C. Benshi[?] (本始 ben3 shi3) 73 B.C.-70 B.C.
Dijie[?] (地節 di4 jie2) 69 B.C.-66 B.C.
Yuankang[?] (元康 yuan2 kang1) 65 B.C.-61 B.C.
Shenjue[?] (神爵 shen2 jue2) 61 B.C.-58 B.C.
Wufeng[?] (五鳳 wu3 feng4) 57 B.C.-54 B.C.
Ganlu[?] (甘露 gan1 lu4) 53 B.C.-50 B.C.
Huanglong[?] (黃龍 hunag2 long2) 49 B.C.
Yuan Di (元帝 yuan2 di4)[?] Liu Shi (劉奭 liu3 shi4) 48 B.C.- 33 B.C. Chuyuan[?] (初元 chu1 yuan2) 48 B.C.-44 B.C.
Yongguang[?] (永光 yong3 guang1) 43 B.C.-39 B.C.
Jianzhao[?] (建昭 jian4 zhao1) 38 B.C.-34 B.C.
Jingning[?] (竟寧 jing4 ning2) 33 B.C.
Cheng Di (成帝 cheng2 di4)[?] Liu Ao (劉驁 liu3 ao2) 32 B.C.-7 B.C. Jianshi[?] (建始 jian4 shi3) 32 B.C.-28 B.C.
Heping[?] (河平 he2 ping2) 28 B.C.-25 B.C.
Yangshuo[?](陽朔 yang2 shuo4) 24 B.C.-21 B.C.
Hongjia[?] (鴻嘉 hong2 jia1) 20 B.C.-17 B.C.
Yongshi[?] (永始 yong3 shi3) 16 B.C.-13 B.C.
Yuanyan[?] (元延 yuan2 yan2) 12 B.C.-9 B.C.
Suihe[?] (綏和 sui1 he2) 8 B.C.-7 B.C.
Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 di4)[?] Liu Xin (劉欣 liu3 xin1) 6 B.C.-1 B.C. Jianping[?] (建平 jian4 ping2) 6 B.C.-3 B.C.
Yuanshou[?] (元壽 yuan2 shou4) 2 B.C.-1 B.C.
Ping Di (平帝 ping2 di4)[?] Liu Kan (劉衎 liu3 kan4) 1-5 Yuanshi[?] (元始 yuan2 shi3) 1-5
Ru Zi Ying (孺子嬰 ru2 zi5 ying1) Liu Ying (劉嬰 liu3 ying1) 6-8 Jushe[?] (居攝 ju1 she4) 6- October 8
Chushi[?] (初始 chu1 shi3) November 8-December 8
the Xin Dynasty[?] by Wang Mang[?] 9-23 Shijianguo[?] (始建國 shi3 jian4 guo1) 9- 13
Tianfeng[?] (天鳳 tian1 feng1) 14-19
Dihuang[?] (地皇 di4 huang2) 20-23
Geng Shi Di (更始帝 gang4 shi3 di4)[?] Liu Xuan (劉玄 liu3 xuan2) 23-25 Gengshi[?] (更始 geng4 shi3) 23-25
Eastern Han Dynasty 25 AD - 220 AD
Guang Wu Di (光武帝 guang1 wu3 di4)[?] Liu Xiu (劉秀 liu3 xiu4) 25-57 Jianwu[?] (建武 jian4 wu3) 25-56
Jianwuzhongyuan[?] (建武中元 jian4 wu3 zhong1 yuan2) 56-57
Ming Di (明帝 ming2 di4)[?] Liu Zhuang (劉莊 liu3 zhuang1) 58-75 Yongping[?] (永平 yong3 ping2) 58-75
Zhang Di (章帝 zhang1 di4)[?] Liu Da (劉炟 liu3 da2) 76-88 Jianchu[?] (建初 jian4 chu1) 76-84
Yuanhe[?] (元和 yuan2 he2) 84-87
Zhanghe[?] (章和 zhang1 he2) 87-88
He Di (和帝 he2 di4)[?] Liu Zhao (劉肇 liu3 zhao4) 89-105 Yongyuan[?] (永元 yong3 yuan2) 89-105
Yuanxing[?] (元興 yuan2 xing1) 105
Shang Di (殤帝 shang1 di4) Liu Long (劉隆 liu3 long2) 106 Yanping (延平 yan2 ping2) 9 months in 106
An Di (安帝 an1 di4)[?] Liu Hu (劉祜 liu3 hu4) 106-125 Yongchu[?] (永初 yong3 chu1) 107-113
Yuanchu[?] (元初 yuan2 chu1) 114-120
Yongning[?](永寧 yong3 ning2) 120-121
Jianguang[?] (建光 jian4 guang1) 121-122
Yanguang[?] (延光 yan2 guang1) 122-125
Shao Di (少帝 shao4 di4) or Bei Xiang Hou (北鄉侯 bei3 xiang1 hou2)[?] Liu Yi (劉懿 liu3 yi4) 125 Yanguang[?] (延光 yan2 guang1) 125
Shun Di (順帝 shun4 di4)[?] Liu Bao (劉保 liu3 bao2) 125-144 Yongjian (永建 yong3 jian4) 126-132
Yangjia (陽嘉 yang2 jia1) 132-135
Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 136-141
Hanan (漢安 han4 an1) 142-144
Jiankang (建康 jian4 kang1) 144
Chong Di (沖帝 chong1 di4)[?] Liu Bing (劉炳 liu3 bing3) 144-145 Yongxi (永熹 yong1 xi1) 145
Zhi Di (質帝 zhi2 di4)[?] Liu Zuan (劉纘 liu3 zuan3) 145-146 Benchu (本初 ben3 chu1) 146
Huan Di (桓帝 huan2 di4)[?] Liu Zhi (劉志 liu3 zhi3) 146-168 Jianhe (建和 jian4 he2) 147-149
Heping (和平 he2 ping2) 150
Yuanjia (元嘉 yuan2 jia1) 151-153
Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 153-154
Yongshou (永壽 yong3 shou4) 155-158
Yanxi (延熹 yan2 xi1) 158-167
Yongkang (永康 yong3 kang1) 167
Ling Di (靈帝 ling2 di4)[?] Liu Hong (劉宏 liu2 hong2) 168-189 Jianning (建寧 jian4 ning2) 168-172
Xiping (熹平 xi1 ping2) 172-178
Guanghe (光和 guang1 he2) 178-184
Zhongping(中平 zhong1 ping2) 184-189
Shao Di (少帝 shao4 di4) or Hong Nong Wang (弘農王 hong2 nong2 wang2) Liu Bian (劉辯 liu3 bian4) 189 Guangxi (光熹 guang1 xi1) 189
Zhaoning (昭寧 zhao1 ning2) 189
Xian Di (獻帝 xian4 di4)[?] Liu Xie (劉協 liu3 xie2) 189-220 Yonghan (永漢 yong3 han4) 189
Chuping (初平 chu1 ping2) 190-193
Xingping (興平 xing1 ping2) 194-195
Jianan (建安 jian4 an1) 196-220
Yankang (延康 yan2 kang1) 220



Three Kingdoms Sovereigns
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Wei 220-265 AD
Convention: "Wei" + posthumous name, sometimes except Cao Pi who was referred using personal names.
Wen Di (文帝 wen2 di4) Cao Pi|曹丕 cao2 pi1 220-226 Huangchu (黃初 huang2 chu1) 220-226
Ming Di (明帝 ming2 di4) Cao Rui|曹叡 cao2 rui4 226-239 Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 227-233
Qinglong (青龍 qing1 long2) 233-237
Jingchu (景初 jing3 chu1) 237-239
Qi Wang (齊王 qi2 wang2) Cao Fang|曹芳 cao2 fang1 239-254 Zhengshi (正始 zheng4 shi3) 240-249
Jiaping (嘉平 jia1 ping2) 249-254
Gao Gui Xiang Gong (高貴鄉公 gao1 gui4 xiang1 gong1) Cao Mao|曹髦 cao2 mao2 254-260 Zhengyuan (正元 zheng4 yuan2) 254-256
Ganlu (甘露 gan1 lu4) 256-260
Yuan Di (元帝 yuan2 di4) Cao Huan|曹奐 cao2 huan4 260-265 Jingyuan (景元 jing3 yuan2) 260-264
Xianxi (咸熙 xian2 xi1) 264-265
Shu or Shu Han 221 - 263
Convention: use personal name
Zhao Lie Di (昭烈帝 zhao1 lie4 di4) 劉備 (liu2 bei4) 221-223 Zhangwu (章武 zhang1 wu3) 221-223
Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Liu Chan|劉禪 (liu2 xhan2) 223-263 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 223-237
Yanxi (延熙 yan2 xi1) 238-257
Jingyao (景耀 jing3 yao4) 258-263
Yanxing (炎興 yan2 xing1) 263
Wu 222-280
Convention: use personal name
Da Di (大帝 da4 di4) 孫權 sun1 quan2 222-252 Huangwu (黃武 huang2 wu3) 222-229
Huanglong (黃龍 huang2 long2) 229-231
Jiahe (嘉禾 jia1 he2) 232-238
Chiwu (赤烏 chi4 wu1) 238-251
Taiyuan (太元 tai4 yuan2) 251-252
Shenfeng (神鳳 shen2 feng4) 252
Kuai ji wang (會稽王 kuai4 ji1 wang2) Sun Liang|孫亮 sun1 liang4 252-258 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 252-253
Wufeng (五鳳 wu3 feng4) 254-256
Taiping (太平 tai4 ping2) 256-258
Jing Di (景帝 jing3 di4) Sun Xiu|孫休 sun1 xiu1 258-264 Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 258-264
Wu Cheng Hou (烏程侯 wu1 cheng2 hou2) Sun Hao|孫皓 sun1 hao4 264-280 Yuanxing (元興 yuan2 xing1) 264-265
Ganlu (甘露 gan1 lu4) 265-266
Baoding (寶鼎 bao3 ding3) 266-269
Jianheng (建衡 jian4 heng2) 269-271
Fenghuang (鳳凰 feng4 huang2) 272-274
Tiance (天冊 tian1 ce4) 275-276
Tianxi (天璽 tian1 xi3) 276
Tianji (天紀 tian1 ji4) 277-280



Jin Dynasty (265-420) Sovereigns
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: "Jin" + posthumous name
Xi (Western) Jin Dynasty 265-317
Wu Di (武帝 wu3 di4) Sima Yan|司馬炎 si1 ma3 yan2 265-290 Taishi (泰始 tai4 shi3) 265-274
Xianning (咸寧 xian2 ning2)275-280
Taikang (太康 tai4 kang1) 280-289
Taixi (太熙 tai4 xi1) 290
Hui Di (惠帝 hui4 di4) Sima Zhong|司馬衷 si1 ma3 zhong1 290-306 Yongxi (永熙 yong3 xi1) 290
Yongping (永平 yong3 ping) 291
Yuankang (元康 yuan2 kang1) 291-299
Yongkang (永康 yong3 kang1) 300-301
Yongning (永寧 yong3 ning2) 301-302
Taian (太安 tai4 an1) 302-303
Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 304
Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 304
Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 304
Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 304-306
Guangxi (光熙 guang1 xi1) 306
Huai Di (懷帝 huai2 di4) Sima Chi|司馬熾 si1 ma3 chi4 307-311 Yongjia (永嘉 yong3 jia1) 307-313
Min Di (愍帝 min3 di4) Sima Ye|司馬鄴 si1 ma3 ye4 313-317 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 313-317
Dong (Eastern) Jin Dynasty[?] 317 AD - 420 AD
Yuan Di (元帝 yuan2 di4) Sima Rui|司馬睿 si1 ma3 rui4 317-322 Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 317-318
Daxing (大興 da4 xing1) 318-321
Yongchang (永昌 yong3 chang3) 321-322
Ming Di (明帝 ming2 di4) Sima Shao|司馬紹 si1 ma3 shao4 322-325 Yongchang (永昌 yong3 chang3) 322-323
Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 323-325
Cheng Di (成帝 cheng2 di4) Sima Yan|司馬衍 si1 ma3 yan3 325-342 Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 325
Xianhe (咸和 xian2 he2) 326-334
Xiankang (咸康 xian2 kang1) 335-342
Kang Di (康帝 kang1 di4) Sima Yue|司馬岳 si1 ma3 yue4 342-344 Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 343-344
Mu Di (穆帝 mu4 di4) Sima Dan|司馬聃 si1 ma3 dan1 345-361 Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 345-356
Shengping (升平 sheng1 ping2) 357-361
Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 di4) Sima Pi|司馬丕 si1 ma3 pi1 361-365 Longhe (隆和 long2 he2) 362-363
Xingning (興寧 xing1 ning2) 363-365
Hai Xi Gong (海西公 hai3 xi1 gong1) Sima Yi|司馬奕 si1 ma3 yi4 365-371 Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 365-371
Jian Wen Di (簡文帝 jian3 wen2 di4) Sima Yu|司馬昱 si1 ma3 yu4 371-372 Xianan (咸安 xian2 an1) 371-372
Xiao Wu Di (孝武帝 xiao4 wu3 di4) Sima Yao|司馬曜 si1 ma3 yao4 372-396 Ningkang (寧康 ning2 kang1) 373-375
Taiyuan (太元 tai4 yuan2) 376-396
An Di (安帝 an1 di4) Sima De Zong|司馬德宗 si1 ma3 de2 zong1 396-418 Longan (隆安 long2 an1) 397-401
Yuanxing (元興 yuan2 xing1) 402-404
Yixi (義熙 yi4 xi1) 405-418
Gong Di (恭帝 gong1 di4) Sima De Wen|司馬德文 si1 ma3 de2 wen2 419-420 Yuanxi (元熙 yuan2 xi1) 419-420



Sovereigns in the Period of Sixteen Kingdoms
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: use personal name
Han Zhao Empire 304-329 AD (addressed separately in traditional texts as Han Empire and Former Zhao Empire)
Han Empire 304-318
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Guang Wen Di (光文帝 guang1 wen2 di4) Liu Yuan|劉淵 liu2 yuan1 304-310 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 304-308
Yongfeng (永鳳 yong3 feng4) 308-309
Herui (河瑞 he2 rui4) 309-310
Did not exist Liang Wang (梁王 liang2 wang2) Liu He|劉和 liu2 he2 7 days in 310 Did not exist
Lie Zong (烈宗 lie4 zong1) Zhao Wu Di (昭武帝 zhao1 wu3 di4) Liu Cong|劉聰 liu2 cong1 310-318 Guangxing (光興 guang1 xing1) 310-311
Jiaping (嘉平 jia1 ping2) 311-315
Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 315-316
Linjia (麟嘉 lin2 jia1) 316-318
Did not exist Yin Di (隱帝 yin3 di4) Liu Can|劉粲 liu2 can4 a month and days in 318 Hanchang (漢昌 han4 chang1) 318
Qian (Former) Zhao Empire 318-329
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Liu Yao|劉曜 liu2 yao4 318-329 Guangchu (光初 guang1 chu1) 318-329
Hou (Later) Zhao Empire 319 - 351
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Ming Di (明帝 ming2 di4) Shi Le|石勒 shi2 le4 319-333 Zhaowang (趙王 zhao4 wang2) 319-328
Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 328-330
Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 330-333
Did not exist Hai Yang Wang (海陽王 hai3 yang2 wang2) Shi Hong|石弘 shi2 hong2 333-334 Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 333
Yanxi (延熙 yan2 xi1) 334
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Di (武帝 wu3 di4) Shi Hu|石虎 shi2 hu3 334-349 Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 334-349
Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 349
Did not exist Qiao Wang (譙王 qiao2 wang2) Shi Shi|石世 shi2 shi4 73 days in 349 Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 73 days in 349
Did not exist Pang Cheng Wang (彭城王 pang2 cheng2 wang2) Shi Zun|石遵 shi2 zun1 183 days in 349 Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 183 days in 349
Did not exist Yi Yang Wang (義陽王 yi4 yang2 wang2) Shi Jian|石鑒 shi2 jian4 103 days within 349-350 Qinglong (青龍 qing1 long2) 103 days within 349-350
Did not exist Xin Xing Wang (新興王 xin1 xing1 wang2) Shi Zhi|石祗 shi2 zhi1 350-351 Yongning (永寧 yong3 ning2) 349-350
Cheng Han Empire 303-347 AD(addressed separately in traditional texts as Cheng Empire and Han Empire)
Cheng Empire 303-338
Shi Zu (始祖 shi3 zu3) or Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Jing Di (景帝 jing3 di4) Li Te|李特 li3 te4 303 Jianchu (建初 jian4 chu1) or Jingchu (景初 jing3 chu1) 303
Did not exist Qin Wen Wang (秦文王 qin2 wen2 wang2) Li Liu|李流 li3 liu2 several months in 303 Did not exist
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Wu Di (武帝 wu3 di4) Li Xiong|李雄 li3 xiong2 303-334 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 303-305
Yanping (晏平 yan4 ping2) 305-311
Yuheng (玉衡 yu4 heng2) 311-334
Did not exist Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 si4) Li Ban|李班 li3 ban1 7 months in 334 Yuheng (玉衡 yu4 heng2) 7 months in 334
Did not exist You Gong (幽公 you1 gong1) Li Qi|李期 li3 qi1 334-338 Yuheng (玉恆 yu4 heng2) 334-338
Han Empire 338-347
Zhong Zong (中宗 zhong1 zong1) Zhao Wen Di (昭文帝 zhao1 wen2 di4) Li Shou|李壽 li3 shou4 338-343 Hanxing (漢興 han4 xing1) 338-343
Did not exist Gui Yi Hou (歸義侯 gui1 yi4 hou2) Li Shi|李勢 li3 shi4 343-347 Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 343-346
Jianing (嘉寧 jia1 ning2) 346-347
Qian (Former) Yan Empire 337-370
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wen Ming Di (文明帝 wen2 ming2 di4) Mu Rong Huang|慕容皝 mu4 rong2 huang3 337-348 Yanwang (燕王 yan4 wang2) 337-348
Lie Zong (烈宗 lie4 zong1) Jing Zhao Di (景昭帝 jing3 zhao1 di4) Mu Rong Jun|慕容俊 mu4 rong2 jun4 348-360 Yanwang (燕王 yan4 wang2) 348-353
Yuanxi (元璽 yuan2 xi3) 353-357
Shengping (升平 sheng1 ping2) 357
Guangshou (光壽 gunag1 shou4) 357-360
Did not exist You Di (幽帝 you1 di4) Mu Rong Wei|慕容暐 mu4 rong2 wei3 360-370 Jianxi (建熙 jian4 xi1) 360-365
Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 365-370
Hou (Later) Yan Empire 384-407
Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Wu Cheng Di (武成帝 wu3 cheng2 di4) Mu Rong Chui|慕容垂 mu4 rong2 chui2 384-396 Yanyuan (燕王 yan4 wang2) 384-385
Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 386-396
Lie Zong (烈宗 lie4 zong1) Hui Min Di (惠愍帝 hui4 min3 di4) Mu Rong Bao|慕容寶 mu4 rong2 bao3 396-398 Yongkang (永康 yong3 kang1) 396-398
Zhong Zong (中宗 zhong1 zong1) Zhao Wu Di (昭武帝 zhao1 wu3 di4) Mu Rong Sheng|慕容盛 mu4 rong2 sheng4 398-401 Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 398
Changluo (長樂 chang2 le4) 399-401
Did not exist Zhao Wen Di (昭文帝 zhao1 wen2 di4) Mu Rong Xi|慕容熙 mu4 rong2 xi1 401-407 Guangshi (光始 guang1 shi3) 401-406
Jianshi (建始 jian4 shi3) 407
Nan (Southern) Yan Empire 398-410
Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) Xian Wu Di (獻武帝 xian4 wu3 di4) Mu Rong De|慕容德 mu4 rong2 de2 398-405 Yanwang (燕王 yan4 wang2) 398-400
Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 400-405
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Mu Rong Chao|慕容超 mu4 rong2 chao1 405-410 Taishang (太上 tai4 shang4) 405-410
Bei (Northern) Yan Empire 407-436
Did not exist Hui Yi Di (惠懿帝 hui4 yi4 di4) Gao Yun|高雲 gao1 yun2 407-409 Zhengshi (正始 zheng4 shi3) 407-409
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wen Cheng Di (文成帝 wen2 cheng2 di4) Feng Ba|馮跋 feng2 ba2 409-430 Taiping (太平 tai4 ping2) 409-430
Did not exist Zhao Cheng Di (昭成帝 zhao1 cheng2 di4) Feng Hong|馮弘 feng2 hong2 430-436 Daxing (大興 da4 xing1) 430-436
Qian (Former) Liang Kingdom 320-376
Did not exist Cheng Gong (成公 cheng2 gong1) Zhang Mao|張茂 zhang1 mao4 320-324 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 320-324
Did not exist Zhong Cheng Gong (忠成公 zhong1 cheng2 gong1) Zhang Jun|張駿 zhang1 jun4 324-346 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 324-346
Did not exist Huan Gong (桓公 huan2 gong1) Zhang Chong Hua|張重華 zhang1 chong2 hua2 346-353 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 346-353
Did not exist Ai Gong (哀公 ai1 gong1) Zhang Yao Ling|張曜靈 zhang1 yao4 ling2 3 months (the ninth to the twelfth month) in 353 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 353
Did not exist Wei Wang (威王 wei1 wang2) Zhang Zuo|張祚 zhang1 zuo4 353-355 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 353-354
Heping (和平 he2 ping2) 354-355
Did not exist Jing Dao Gong (敬悼公 jing4 dao4 gong1) or Chong Gong (沖公 chong1 gong1) Zhang Xuan Jing|張玄靖 zhang1 xuan2 jing4 355-363 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 355-361
Shengping (升平 sheng1 ping2) 361-363
Did not exist Dao Gong (悼公 dao4 gong1) Zhang Tian Xi|張天錫 zhang1 tian1 xi2 364-376 Shengping (升平 sheng1 ping2) 364-376
Hou (Later) Liang Kingdom 386 AD - 403 AD
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Yi Wu Wang (懿武王 yi4 wu3 wang2) Luu Guang|呂光 uu3 guang1 386-399 Taian (太安 tai4 an1) 386-389
Lunjia (麟嘉 lun2 jia1) 389-396
Longfei (龍飛 long2 fei1) 396-399
Did not exist Yin Wang (隱王 yin3 wang2) Luu Shao|呂紹 luu3 shao4 399 Longfei (龍飛 long2 fei1) 399
Did not exist Ling Wang (靈王 ling2 wang2) Luu Zuan|呂纂 luu3 zuan3 399-401 Xianning (咸寧 xian2 ning2) 399-401
Did not exist Shang Shu Gong (尚書公 shang4 shu1 gong1) or Jiankang Gong (建康公 jian4 kang1 gong1) Luu Long|呂隆 luu3 long2 401-403 Shending (神鼎 shen2 ding3) 401-403
Nan (Southern) Liang Kingdom 397 AD - 414 AD
Lie Zu (烈祖 lie4 zu3) Wu Wang (武王 wu3 wang2) Tufa Wu Gu|禿髮烏孤 tu1 fa3 wu1 gu1 397-399 Taichu (太初 tai4 chu1) 397-399
Did not exist Kang Wang (康王 kang1 wang2) Tufa Li Lu Gu|禿髮利鹿孤 tu1 fa3 li4 lu4 gu1 399-402 Jianhe (建和 jian4 he2) 399-402
Did not exist Jing Wang (景王 jing3 wang2) or Jing Wang (敬王 jing4 wang2) Tufa Ru Tan|禿髮(人+辱)檀 tu1 fa3 li4 ru? tan2 402-414 Hongchang (弘昌 hong2 chang1) 402-404
Jiaping (嘉平 jia1 ping2) 409-414
Bei (Northern) Liang Kingdom 397-414 (as Kings of Gao Chang 442-460)
Did not exist Did not exist Duan Ye|段業 duan4 ye4 397-401 Shen Xi (神璽 shen2 xi3) 397-399
Tian Xi (天璽 tian1 xi3) 399-401
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Xuan Wang (武宣王 wu3 xuan1 wang2) Ju Qu Meng Xun|沮渠蒙遜 ju3 qu2 meng2 xun4 401-433 Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 401-412
Xuanshi (玄始 xuan2 shi3) 412-428
Chengxuan (承玄 cheng2 xuan2) 428-430
Yihe (義和 yi4 he2) 430-433
Did not exist Ai Wang (哀王 ai1 wang2) Ju Qu Mu Jian|沮渠牧犍 ju3 qu2 mu4 jian1 433-439 Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 433-439
Did not exist Did not exist Ju Qu Wu Hui|沮渠無諱 ju3 qu2 wu2 hui4 442-444 Chengping (承平 cheng2 ping2) 442-443
Qianshou (乾壽 qian2 shou4) 443-444
Did not exist Did not exist Ju Qu An Zhou|沮渠安周 ju3 qu2 an1 zhou1 444-460 Chengping (承平 cheng2 ping2) 444-460
Xi (Western) Liang Kingdom 400-421
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Zhao Wang (武昭王 wu3 zhao1 wang2) Li Gao|李暠 li3 gao3 400-417 Gengzi (庚子 geng1 zi5) 400-405
Jianchu (建初 jian4 chu1) 406-416
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Li Xin|李歆 li3 xin1 417-420 Jiaxing (嘉興 jia1 xing1) 417-420
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Li Xun|李恂 li3 xun2 420-421 Yongjian (永建 yong3 jian4) 420-421
Qian Former Qin Empire 351 AD - 394 AD
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Jing Ming Di (景明帝 jing3 ming2 di4) Fu Jian|苻健 fu2 jian4 351-355 Huangshi (皇始 huang2 shi3) 351-355
Did not exist Li Wang (厲王 li4 wang2) Fu Sheng|苻生 fu2 sheng1 355-357 Shouguang (壽光 shou4 guang1) 355-357
Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Xuan Zhao Di (宣昭帝 xuan1 zhao1 di4) Fu Jian|苻堅 fu2 jian1 357-385 Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 357-359
Ganlu (甘露 gan1 lu4) 359-364
Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 365-385
Did not exist Ai Ping Di (哀平帝 ai1 ping2 di4) Fu Pi|苻丕 fu2 pi1 385-386 Taian (太安 tai4 an1) 385-386
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Gao Di (高帝 gao1 di4) Fu Deng|苻登 fu2 deng1 386-394 Taichu (太初 tai4 chu1) 385-394
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Fu Chong|苻崇 fu2 chong2 several months in 394 Yanchu (延初 yan2 chu1) 394
Hou (Later) Qin Empire 384 AD - 417 AD
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Zhao Di (武昭帝 wu3 zhao1 di4) Yao Chang|姚萇 yao2 chang2 384-393 Bai Que(白雀 bai2 que4) 384-386
Jianchu (建初 jian4 chu1) 386-393
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Wen Huan Di (文桓帝 wen2 huan2 di4) Yao Xing|姚興 yao2 xing1 394-416 Huangchu (皇初 huang2 chu1) 394-399
Hongshi (弘始 hong2 shi3) 399-416
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Yao Hong|姚泓 yao2 hong2 416-417 Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 416-417
Xi (Western) Qin Kingdom 385-400,409-431
Lie Zu (烈祖 lie4 zu3) Xuan Lie Wang (宣烈王 xuan1 lie4 wang2) Qifu Guo Ren|乞伏國仁 qi3 fu2 guo2 ren2 385-388 Jianyi (建義 jian4 yi4) 385-388
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Wu Yuan Wang (武元王 wu3 yuan2 wang2) Qifu Gan Gui|乞伏乾歸 qi3 fu2 gan1 gui1 388-400,409-412 Taichu (太初 tai4 chu1) 388-400
Gengshi (更始 geng4 shi3) 409-412
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wen Zhao Wang (文昭王 wen2 zhao1 wang2) Qifu Chi Pan|乞伏熾磐 qi3 fu2 chi4 pan2 388-400,409-412 Yongkang (永康 yong3 kang1) 412-419
Jianhong (建弘 jian4 hong2) 420-428
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Qifu Mu Mo|乞伏暮末 qi3 fu2 mu4 mo4 428-431 Yonghong (永弘 yong3 hong2) 428-431
Xia Empire 407-431
Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Wu Lie Di (武烈帝 wu3 lie4 di4) Helian Bo Bo|赫連勃勃 he4 lian2 bo2 bo2 407-425 Longsheng (龍升 long2 sheng1) 407-413
Fengxiang (鳳翔 feng4 xiang2) 413-418
Changwu (昌武 chang1 wu3) 418-419
Zhenxing (真興 chen1 xing1) 419-425
Did not exist Qin Wang (秦王 qin2 wang2) Helian Chang|赫連昌 he4 lian2 chang1 425-428 Chengguang (承光 cheng2 guang1) 425-428
Did not exist Ping Yuan Wang (平原王 ping2 yuan2 wang2) Helian Ding|赫連定 he4 lian2 ding4 428-431 Shengguang (勝光 sheng4 guang1) 425-428



Sovereignties established by Chinese and Wu Hu but traditionally not counted in the Sixteen Kingdoms
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: use personal name
Ran Wei Kingdom 350-352 (addressed as Wei Kingdom in traditional texts)
Wu Dao Tian Wang (武道天王 wu3 dao4 tian1 wang2) Ran Min|冉閔 ran3 min3 350-352 Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 350-352
Xi (Western) Yan Empire 384-394
Wei Di (威帝 wei1 di4) Mu Rong Hong|慕容泓 mu4 rong2 hong2 384 Yanxing (燕興 yan4 xing1) 384
Did not exist Mu Rong Chong|慕容沖 mu4 rong2 chong1 384-386 Yanxing (燕興 yan4 xing1) 384-385
Gengshi (更始 geng4 shi3) 385-386
Did not exist Duan Sui|段隨 duan4 sui2 386 Changping (昌平 chang1 ping2) 386
Did not exist Mu Rong Tao|慕容韜 mu4 rong2 tao1 386 Jianming (建明 jian4 ming2) 386
Did not exist Mu Rong Yao|慕容瑤 mu4 rong2 yao2 386 Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 386
Did not exist Mu Rong Zhong|慕容忠 mu4 rong2 zhong1 386 Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 386
Did not exist Mu Rong Yong|慕容永 mu4 rong2 yong3 386-394 Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 386-394
Shu Kingdom 405-413
Cheng Du Wang (成都王 cheng2 du1 wang2) Qiao Zong|譙縱 qiao2 zong4 405-413 Did not exist
Chieftains of Tiefu Tribe ( mid-3rd century-391 )
Did not exist Liu Qu Bei|劉去卑 liu2 qu4 bei1 mid 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Gao Sheng Yuan|劉誥升爰 liu2 gao4 sheng1 yuan2 mid 3rd century - late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Hu|劉虎 liu2 hu3 early 4th century (309?) - 341 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Wu Heng|劉務恒 liu2 wu4 heng2 341-356 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu E Lou Tou|劉閼陋頭 liu2 e4 lou4 tou2 356-358 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Xi Wu Qi|劉悉勿祈 liu2 xi1 wu4 qi2 358-359 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Wei Chen|劉衛辰 liu2 wei4 chen2 359-391 Did not exist
Chieftains of Yuwen Tribe ( late-3rd century-345 )
Did not exist Yuwen Mo Huai|宇文莫槐 yu3 wen2 mo4 huai2 late 3rd century-293 Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Pu Hui|宇文普回 yu3 wen2 pu3 hui2 or Yuwen Pu Bo|宇文普撥 yu3 wen2 pu3 bo1 293-late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Qiu Bu Quan|宇文丘不勤 yu3 wen2 qiu1 bu4 qin2 late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Mo Gui|宇文莫圭 yu3 wen2 mo4 gui1 late 3rd century (299?)- early 4th century (302?) Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Xi Du Guan|宇文悉獨官 yu3 wen2 xi1 du2 guan1 early 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Qi De Gui|宇文乞得歸 yu3 wen2 qi3 de5 gui1 early 3rd century - 333 Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Yi Dou Gui|宇文逸豆歸 yu3 wen2 yi4 dou4 gui1 333-345 Did not exist
Dukes of Liaoxi 303-338
Did not exist Duan Wu Wu Chen|段務勿塵 duan4 wu4 wu4 chen2 303-310 or 311 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Ji Lu Quan|段疾陸眷 duan4 ji2 lu4 juan4 310 or 311 - 318 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan She Fu Chen|段涉復辰 duan4 she4 fu4 chen2 318 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Pi Di|段匹磾 duan4 pi3 di1 318-321 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Mo Pei|段末柸 duan4 mo4 pei1 318-325 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Ya|段牙 duan4 ya2 325 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Liao|段遼 duan4 liao2 326-338 Did not exist
Chieftains, Dukes and Kings of Chouchi, Wuxing and Yinping (late 2nd century- mid 6th century (555?) )
First Phase of Chouchi (late 2nd century-371)
Did not exist Yang Teng|楊騰 yang2 teng2 late 2nd century- early 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Ju|楊駒 yang2 ju1 early 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Qian Wan|楊千萬 yang2 qian1 wan4 early 3rd century - mid 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Fei Long|楊飛龍 yang2 fei1 long2 mid 3rd century - late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Mao Sou|楊茂搜 yang2 mao4 sou1 late 3rd century - 317 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Nan Di|楊難敵 yang2 nan2 di2 317-334 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Yi|楊毅 yang2 yi4 334-337 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Chu|楊初 yang2 chu1 337-355 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Guo|楊國 yang2 guo2 355-356 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Jun|楊俊 yang2 jun4 356-360 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Shi|楊世 yang2 shi4 360-370 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Cuan|楊篡 yang2 cuan4 370-371 Did not exist
Second Phase of Chouchi 385-473
Wu Wang|武王 wu3 wang2 Yang Ding|楊定 yang2 ding4 385-394 Did not exist
Hui Wen Wang|惠文王 hui4 wen2 wang2 Yang Sheng|楊盛 yang2 sheng4 394-425 Did not exist
Xiao Zhao Wang|孝昭王 xiao4 zhao1 wang2 Yang Xuan|楊玄 yang2 xuan2 425-429 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Bao Zong|楊保宗 yang2 bao3 zong1 429 and 443 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Nan Dang|楊難當 yang2 nan2 dang1 429-441 Jianyi (建義 jian4 yi4) 436-440
Did not exist Yang Bao Chi|楊保熾 yang2 bao3 chi4 442-443 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Wen De|楊文德 yang2 wen2 de2 443-454 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Yuan He|楊元和 yang2 yuan2 he2 455-466 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Seng Si|楊僧嗣 yang2 seng1 si4 466-473 Did not exist
Kings of Wuxing 473-506 and 534-555
Did not exist Yang Wen Du|楊文度 yang2 wen2 du4 473-477 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Wen Hong|楊文弘 yang2 wen2 hong2 477-482 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Hou Qi|楊後起 yang2 hou4 qi3 482-486 Did not exist
An Wang (安王 an1 wang2) Yang Ji Shi|楊集始 yang2 ji2 shi3 482-503 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Shao Xian|楊紹先 yang2 shao4 xian1 503-506, 534-535 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Zhi Hui|楊智慧 yang2 zhi4 hui4 535-545 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Bi Xie|楊辟邪 yang2 bi4 xie2 545-553 Did not exist
Note: Yang Zhi Hui and Yang Bi Xie could be the same person
Kings of Yinping 477- mid 6th century
Did not exist Yang Guang Xiang|楊廣香 yang2 guang3 xiang1 477-483? Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Jiong|楊炯 yang2 jiong3 483-495 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Chong Zu|楊崇祖 yang2 chong2 zu3 495-before 502 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Meng Sun|楊孟孫 yang2 meng4 sun1 before 502-511 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Ding|楊定 yang2 ding4 511- ? Did not exist
Chieftains of Tuoba Tribe 219-377 (as Kings of Dai 305?-377)
As a well known fact, Tuoba Family was the ruling family of Northern Wei Dynasty, founded by Tuoba Gui. Hence Table of Northern Wei Dynasty will start with him, not as a continuation of this table.
Note: All chieftains were revered as emperors in Weishu[?] and Beishi[?] which they never were. They were denoted here as 王(wang2) which was inherited by all successors of Tuoba Yi Lu.
Shen Yuan Wang|神元王 shen2 yuan2 wang2 Tuoba Li Wei|拓拔力微 tou4 ba2 li4 wei2 219-277 Did not exist
Note: His temple name was Shi Zu|始祖 shi2 zu3. Another column was not created since only he was the only chieftain before Tuoba Gui revered with a temple name
Zhang Wang|章王 zhang1 wang2 Tuoba Xi Lu|拓拔悉鹿 tou4 ba2 xi1 lu4 277-286 Did not exist
Ping Wang|平王 ping2 wang2 Tuoba Chuo|拓拔綽 tou4 ba2 chuo4 286-293 Did not exist
Si Wang|思王 si1 wang2 Tuoba Fu|拓拔弗 tou4 ba2 fu2 293-294 Did not exist
Zhao Wang|昭王 zhao1 wang2 Tuoba Lu Guan|拓拔祿官 tou4 ba2 lu4 guan1 294-307 Did not exist
Mu Wang|穆王 mu4 wang2 Tuoba Yi Tuo|拓拔猗(拖 without 手) tou4 ba2 yi1 tuo1 295-305 Did not exist
Mu Wang|穆王 mu4 wang2 Tuoba Yi Lu|拓拔猗盧 tou4 ba2 yi1 lu2 295-316 Did not exist
Did not exist Tuoba Pu Gen|拓拔普根 tou4 ba2 pu3 gen1 316 Did not exist
Did not exist Tuoba (no first name)|拓拔? tou4 ba2 ? 316 Did not exist
Ping Wen Wang|平文王 ping2 wen2 wang2 Tuoba Yu Luu|拓拔鬱律 tou4 ba2 yu4 luu4 316-321 Did not exist
Hui Wang|惠王 hui4 wang2 Tuoba He Ru|拓拔賀(人+辱) tou4 ba2 he4 ru3 321-325 Did not exist
Yang Wang|煬王 yang2 wang2 Tuoba He Na|拓拔紇那 tou4 ba2 he2 na3 325-329 and 335-337 Did not exist
Lie Wang|烈王 lie4 wang2 Tuoba Yi Huai|拓拔翳槐 tou4 ba2 yi4 huai2 329-335 and 337-338 Did not exist
Zhao Cheng Wang|昭成王 zhao1 cheng2 wang2 Tuoba Shi Yi Jian|拓拔什翼健 tou4 ba2 shi2 yi4 jian4 338-377 Jianguo (建國 jian4 guo2) 338-377



Sovereigns in the Period of Southern and Northern Dynasty
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Northern dynasty
Bei Northern Wei Dynasty 386-535
Convention: Bei (Northern) Wei + posthumous name
As a well known fact Tuoba family changed their family name to 元(yuan2) during the reign of Xiao Wen Di in 496 so we will also change from there.
Dao Wu Di|道武帝 dao4 wu3 di4 Tuoba Gui|拓拔珪 tou4 ba2 gui1 386-409 Dengguo (登國 deng1 guo2) 386-396
Huangshi (皇始 huang2 shi3) 396-398
Tianxing (天興 tian1 xing1) 398-404
Tianci (天賜 tian1 ci4) 404-409
Ming Yuan Di|明元帝 ming2 yuan2 di4 Tuoba Si|拓拔嗣 tou4 ba2 si4 409-423 Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 409-413
Shenrui (神瑞 shen2 rui4) 414-416
Taichang (泰常 tai4 chang2) 416-423
Tai Wu Di|太武帝 tai4 wu3 di4 Tuoba Tao|拓拔燾 tou4 ba2 tao2 424-452 Shiguang (始光 shi3 guang1) 424-428
Shenjia (神麚 shen2 jia1) 428-[{431]]
Yanhe (延和 yan2 he2) 432-434
Taiyan (太延 tai4 yan2) 435-440
Taipingzhenjun (太平真君 tai4 ping2 zhen1 jun1) 440-451
Zhengping (正平 zheng4 ping2) 451-452
Nan An Wang|南安王 nan2 an1 wang2 Tuoba Yu|拓拔余 tou4 ba2 yu2 452 Yongping (永平 yong3 ping2) or Chengping (承平 cheng2 ping2) 452
Wen Cheng Di|文成帝 wen2 cheng2 di4 Tuoba Jun|拓拔濬 tou4 ba2 jun4 452-465 Xingan (興安 xing1 an1) 452-454
Xingguang (興光 xing1 guang1) 454-455
Taian (太安 tai4 an1) 455-459
Heping (和平 he2 ping2) 460-465
Xian Wen Di|獻文帝 xian4 wen2 di4 Tuoba Hong|拓拔弘 tou4 ba2 hong2 466-471 Tianan (天安 tian1 an1) 466-467
Huangxing (皇興 huang2 xing1) 467-471
Xiao Wen Di|孝文帝 xiao4 wen2 di4 Yuan Hong|元宏 yuan2 hong2 471-499 Yanxing (延興 yan2 xing1) 471-476
Chengming (承明 cheng2 ming2) 476
Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 477-499
Xuan Wu Di|宣武帝 xuan1 wu3 di4 Yuan Ke|元恪 yuan2 ke4 500-515 Jingming (景明 jing3 ming2) 500-503
Zhengshi (正始 zheng4 shi3) 504-508
Yongping (永平 yong3 ping2) 508-512
Yanchang (延昌 yan2 chang1) 512-515
Xiao Ming Di|孝明帝 xiao4 ming2 di4 Yuan Xu|元詡 yuan2 xu3 516-528 Xiping (熙平 xi1 ping2) 516-518
Shengui (神龜 shen2 gui1) 518-520
Zhengguang (正光 zheng4 guang1) 520-525
Xiaochang (孝昌 xiao4 chang1) 525-527
Wutai (武泰 wu3 tai4) 528
Xiao Zhuang Di|孝莊帝 xiao4 zhuang1 di4 Yuan Zi You|元子攸 yuan2 zi5 you1 528-530 Jianyi (建義 jian4 yi4) 528
Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 528-530
Chang Guang Wang|長廣王 chang2 guang3 wang2 or Jing Di|敬帝 jing4 di4 Yuan Ye|元曄 yuan2 ye4 530-531 Jianming (建明 jian4 ming2) 530-531
Jue Min Di|節閔帝 jie2 min3 di4 Yuan Gong|元恭 yuan2 gong1 531-532 Putai (普泰 pu3 tai4) 531-532
An Ding Wang|安定王 an1 ding4 wang2 or Chu Di|出帝 chu1 di4 Yuan Lang|元朗 yuan2 lang3 531-532 Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 531-532
Xiao Wu Di|孝武帝 xiao1 wu3 di4 Yuan Xiu|元脩 yuan2 xiu1 532-535 Taichang (太昌 tai4 chang1) 532
Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 532
Yongxi (永熙 yong3 xi1) 532-535
Dong (Eastern) Wei Dynasty 534-550
Convention: Dong (Eastern) Wei + posthumous name
Xiao Jing Di|孝靜帝 xiao1 jing4 di4 Yuan Shan Jian|元善見 yuan2 shan4 jian4 534-550 Tianping (天平 tian1 ping2) 534-537
Yuanxiang (元象 yuan2 xiang4) 538-539
Xinghe (興和 xing1 he2) 539-542
Wuding (武定 wu3 ding4) 543-550
Bei (Northern) Qi Dynasty 550-577
Convention: Bei (Northern) Qi + posthumous name
Wen Xuan Di|文宣帝 wen2 xuan1 di4 Gao Yang|高洋 gao1 yang2 550-559 Tianbao (天保 tain1 bao3) 550-559
Fei Di|廢帝 fei4 di4 Gao Yin|高殷 gao1 yin1 560 Qianming (乾明 qian1 ming2) 560
Xiao Zhao Di|孝昭帝 xiao1 zhao1 di4 Gao Yan|高演 gao1 yan3 560-561 Huangjian (皇建 huang2 jian4) 560-561
Wu Cheng Di|武成帝 wu3 cheng2 di4 Gao Zhan|高湛 gao1 zhan4 561-565 Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 561-562
Heqing (河清 he2 qing1) 562-565
Hou Zhu|後主 hou4 zhu3 Gao Wei|高緯 gao1 wei3 565-577 Tiantong (天統 tian1 tong3) 565-569
Wuping (武平 wu3 ping2) 570-576
Longhua (隆化 long2 hua3 576
You Zhu|幼主 you4 zhu3 Gao Heng|高恆 gao1 heng2 577 Chengguang (承光 cheng2 guang1) 577
Fan Yang Wang|范陽王 fan4 yang2 wang2 Gao Shao Yi|高紹義 gao1 shao4 yi4 577-579? Did not exist
Xi (Western) Wei Dynasty 535-556
Convention: Xi (Western) Wei + posthumous name
Wen Di|文帝 wen2 di4 Yuan Bao Ju|元寶炬 yuan2 bao3 ju4 535-551 Datong (大統 da4 tong3) 535-551
Fei Di|廢帝 fei4 di4 Yuan Qin|元欽 yuan2 qin1 552-554 Did not exist
Gong Di|恭帝 gong1 di4 Yuan Kuo|元廓 yuan2 kuo4 554-556 Did not exist
Bei (Northern) Zhou Dynasty 557-581
Convention: Bei (Northern) Zhou + posthumous name
Xiao Min Di|孝閔帝 xiao1 min3 di4 Yuwen Jue|宇文覺 yu3 wen2 jue2 557 Did not exist
Ming Di|明帝 ming2 di4 or Xiao Ming Di|孝明帝 xiao4 ming2 di4 Yuwen Yu|宇文毓 yu3 wen2 yu4 557-560 Wucheng (武成 wu3 cheng2) 559-560
Wu Di|武帝 wu3 di4 Yuwen Yong|宇文邕 yu3 wen2 yong1 561-578 Baoding (保定 bao3 ding4) 561-565
Tianhe (天和 tian1 he2) 566-572
Jiande (建德 jian4 de2) 572-578
Xuanzheng (宣政 xuan1 zheng4) 578
Xuan Di|宣帝 xuan1 di4 Yuwen Yun|宇文贇 yu3 wen2 yun1 579 Dacheng (大成 da4 cheng2) 579
Jing Di|靜帝 jing4 di4 Yuwen Chan|宇文闡 yu3 wen2 chan3 579-581 Daxiang (大象 da4 xiang4) 579-581
Dading (大定 da4 ding4) 581
Southern dynasty 420-589
Song Dynasty (420-479)
Convention: Song + posthumous name, sometimes except Liu Yu who was referred using personal name.
Wu Di|武帝 wu3 jing4 di4 Liu Yu|劉裕 liu3 yu4 420-422 Yongchu (永初 yong3 chu1) 420-422
Shao Di|少帝 shao4 di4 Liu Yi Fu|劉義符 liu3 yi4 fu2 423-424 Jingping (景平 jing3 ping2) 423-424
Wen Di|文帝 wen2 di4 Liu Yi Long|劉義隆 liu3 yi4 long2 424-453 Yuanjia (元嘉 yaun2 jia1) 424-453
Xiao Wu Di|孝武帝 xiao1 wu3 di4 Liu Jun|劉駿 liu3 jun4 454-464 Xiaojian (元嘉 xiao1 jian4) 454-456
Daming (大明 da4 ming2) 457-464
Qian Fei Di|前廢帝 qian2 fei4 di4 Liu Zi Ye|劉子業 liu3 zi5 ye4 465 Yongguang (永光 yong3 guang1) 465
Jinghe (景和 jing3 he2) 465
Ming Di|明帝 ming2 di4 Liu Yu|劉彧 liu3 yu4 465-472 Taishi (泰始 tai4 shi3) 465-471
Taiyu (泰豫 tai4 yu4) 472
Hou Fei Di|後廢帝 hou4 fei4 di4 or Cang Wu Wang|蒼梧王 cang1 wu2 wang2 Liu Yu|劉昱 liu3 yu4 473-477 Yuanhui (元徽 yuan2 hui1) 473-477
Shun Di|順帝 shun4 di4 Liu Zhun|劉準 liu3 zhun3 477-479 Shengming (昇明 sheng1 ming2) 477-479
Qi Dynasty 479-502
Convention: Qi + posthumous name
Gao Di|高帝 gao1 di4 Xiao Dao Cheng|蕭道成 xiao1 dao4 cheng2 479-482 Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 479-482
Wu Di|武帝 wu3 jing4 di4 Xiao Ze|蕭賾 xiao1 ze2 483-493 Yongming (永明 yong3 ming2) 483-493
Yu Lin Wang|鬱林王 yu4 lin2 wang2 Xiao Zhao Ye|蕭昭業 xiao1 zhao1 ye4 494 Longchang (隆昌 long2 chang1) 494
Hai Ling Wang (海陵王 hai3 ling2 wang2) Xiao Zhao Wen|蕭昭文 xiao1 zhao1 wen2 494 Yanxing (延興 yan2 xing1) 494
Ming Di|明帝 ming2 di4 Xiao Luan|蕭鸞 xiao1 luan2 494-498 Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 494-498
Yongtai (永泰 yong3 tai4) 498
Dong Hun Hou (東昏侯 dong1 hun1 hou2) Xiao Bao Juan|蕭寶卷 xiao1 bao3 juan3 499-501 Yongyuan] (永元 yong3 yuan2) 499-501
He Di|和帝 he2 di4 Xiao Bao Rong|蕭寶融 xiao1 bao3 rong2 501-502 Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 501-502
Liang Dynasty 502-557
Convention: Liang + posthumous name
Wu Di|武帝 wu3 jing4 di4 Xiao Yan|蕭衍 xiao1 yan3 502-549 Tianjian (天監 tian1 jian1) 502-519
Putong (普通 pu3 tong1) 520-527
Datong (大通 da4 tong1) 527-529
Zhongdatong (中大通 zhong1 da4 tong1) 529-534
Datong (大同 da4 tong2) 535-546
Zhongdatong (中大同 zhong1 da4 tong2) 546-547
Taiqing (太清 tai4 qing1) 547-549
Jian Wen Di (簡文帝 jian3 wen2 di4) Xiao Gang|蕭綱 xiao1 gang1 549-551 Dabao (大寶 da4 bao3) 550-551
Yu Zhang Wang (豫章王 yu4 zhang1 wang2) Xiao Dong|蕭棟 xiao1 dong4 551-552 Tianzheng (天正 tian1 zheng4) 551-552
Yuan Di (元帝 yuan2 di4) Xiao Yi|蕭繹 xiao1 yi4 552-555 Chengsheng (承聖 cheng2 sheng4) 552-555
Zhen Yang Hou (貞陽侯 zhen1 yang2 hou2) Xiao Yuan Ming|蕭淵明 xiao1 yuan1 ming2 555 Tiancheng (天成 tian1 cheng2) 555
Jing Di|敬帝 jing4 di4 Xiao Fang Zhi|蕭方智 xiao1 fang1 zhi4 555-557 Shaotai (紹泰 shao4 tai4) 555-556
Taiping (太平 tai4 ping2) 556-557
Chen Dynasty 557-589
Convention: Chen + posthumous name
Wu Di|武帝 wu3 di4 Chen Ba Xian|陳霸先 chen2 ba4 xian1 557-559 Yongding (永定 yong3 ding4) 557-559
Wen Di|文帝 wen2 di4 Chen Qian|陳蒨 chen2 qian4 560-566 Tianjia (天嘉 tian1 jia1) 560-566
Tiankang (天康 tian1 kang1) 566
Fei Di|廢帝 fei4 di4 Chen Bo Zong|陳伯宗 chen2 bo2 zong1 567-568 Guangda (光大 guang1 da4) 567-568
Xuan Di|宣帝 xuan1 di4 Chen Xu|陳頊 chen2 xu1 569-582 Taijian (太建 tai4 jian4) 569-582
Hou Zhu|後主 hou4 zhu3 Chen Shu Bao|陳叔寶 chen2 shu2 bao3 583-589 Zhide (至德 zhi4 de2) 583-586
Zhenming (禎明 zhen1 ming2) 587-589



Nan (Southern) Liang Dynasty 555-587
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: Nan (Southern) Liang + posthumous name
Note: some historians set Nan Liang as a continuation of the Liang Dynasty since it was founded by descendants of the Xiao's, the ruling family of the Liang Dynasty.
Zhong Zong (中宗 zhong1 zong1) Xuan Di|宣帝 xuan1 di4 Xiao Cha|蕭察 xiao1 cha2 555-562 Dading (大定 da4 ding4) 555-562
Shi Zong (世4宗 zhong1 zong1) Xiao Ming Di|孝明帝 xiao4 ming2 di4 Xiao Kui|蕭巋 xiao1 kui1 562-585 Tianbao (天保 tian1 bao3) 562-585
Did not exist Xiao Jing Di|孝靜帝 xiao4 jing4 di4 or Ju Gong|莒公 ju3 gong1 Xiao Cong|蕭琮 xiao1 cong2 585-587 Guangyun (廣運 guang3 yun4) 562-585



Sui Dynasty 581-618
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: "Sui" + posthumous name
Wen Di|文帝 wen2 di4 Yang Jian|楊堅 yang2 jian1 581-604 Kaihuang (開皇 kai1 huang2) 581-600
Renshou (仁壽 ren2 shou4) 601-604
Yang Di|煬帝 yang2 di4 Yang Guang|楊廣 yang2 guang3 605-617 Daye (大業 da4 ye4) 605-617
Gong Di|恭帝 gong1 di4 Yang You|楊侑 yang2 you4 617-618 Yining (義寧 yi4 ning2) 617-618



Tang Dynasty 618-690, 705-907
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟;號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: "Tang" + temple name
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Li Yuan|李淵 li3 yuan1 618-626 Wude (武德 wu3 de2) 618-626
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Li Shi Min|李世民 li3 shi4 min2 627-649 Zhenguan (貞觀 zhen1 guan1) 627-649
Gao Zong (高宗 gao1 zong1) Li Zhi |李治 li3 zhi4 650-683 Yonghui (永徽 yong3 hui1) 650-655
Xianqing (顯慶 xian3 qing4) 656-661
Longshuo (龍朔 long2 shuo4) 661-663
Linde (麟德 lin2 de2) 664-665
Qianfeng (乾封 qian2 feng1) 666-668
Zongzhang (總章 zong3 zhang1) 668-670
Xianheng (咸亨 xian2 heng1) 670-674
Shangyuan (上元 shang4 yuan2) 674-676
Yifeng (儀鳳 yi2 feng4) 676-679
Tiaolu (調露 tiao2 lu4) 679-680
Yonglong (永隆 yong3 long2) 680-681
Kaiyao (開耀 kai1 yao4) 681-682
Yongchun (永淳 yong3 chun2) 682-683
Hongdao (弘道 hong2 dao4) 683
Zhong Zong (中宗 zhong1 zong1) Li Xian|李顯 li3 xian3 or Li Zhe|李哲 li3 zhe2 684, 705-710 Sisheng (嗣聖 si4 sheng4) 684
Shenlong (神龍 shen2 long2) 705-707
Jinglong (景龍 jing3 long2) 707-710<be>
Rui Zong (睿宗 rui4 zong1) Li Dan|李旦 li3 dan4 684, 710-712 Wenming (文明 wen2 ming2) 684
Jingyun (景雲 jing3 yun2) 710-711
Taiji (太極 tai4 ji2) 712
Yanhe (延和 yan2 he2) 712
Wu Hou (武后 wu3 hou4) Wu Ze Tian|武則天 wu3 ze2 tian1 684-705 Guangzhai (光宅 guang1 zhai2) 684
Chuigong (垂拱 chui2 gong3) 685-688
Yongchang (永昌 yong3 chang1) 689
Zaichu (載初 zai4 chu1) 690
Zhou Dynasty (690 AD - 705 AD)
Convention: use personal name
Wu Hou (武后 wu3 hou4) Wu Ze Tian|武則天 wu3 ze2 tian1 684-705 Tianshou (天授 tian1 shou4) 690-692
Ruyi (如意 ru2 yi4) 692
Changshou (長壽 chang2 shou4) 692-694
Yanzai (延載 yan2 zai4) 694
Zhengsheng (證聖 zheng4 sheng4) 695
Tiancewansui (天冊萬歲 tian1 ce4 wan4 sui4) 695-696
Wansuidengfeng (萬歲登封 wan4 sui4 deng1 feng1) 696
Wansuitongtian (萬歲通天 wan4 sui4 tong1 tian1) 696-697
Shengong (神功 shen2 gong1) 697
Shengli (聖曆 sheng4 li4) 698-700
Jiushi (久視 jiu3 shi4) 700
Daju (大足 da4 ju2) 701
Changan (長安 chang2 an1) 701-705
Continuation of Tang Dynasty
Shao Di (少帝 shao4 di4) see note below the table Li Chong Mao|李重茂 li3 chong2 mao4 710 Tanglong (唐隆 tang2 long2) 710
Xuan Zong (玄宗 xuan2 zong1) Li Long Ji|李隆基 li3 long2 ji1 712-756 Xiantian (先天 xian1 tian1) 712-713
Kaiyuan (開元 kai1 yuan2) 713-741
Tianbao (天寶 tian1 bao3) 742-756
Su Zong (肅宗 su4 zong1) Li Heng|李亨 li3 heng1 756-762 Jide (至德 zhi4 de2) 756-758
Qianyuan (乾元 qian2 yuan2) 758-760
Shangyuan (上元 shang4 yuan2) 760-761
Dai Zong (代宗 dai4 zong1) Li Yu|李豫 li3 yu4 762-779 Baoying (寶應 bao3 ying4) 762-763
Guangde (廣德 guang3 de2) 763-764
Yongtai (永泰 yong3 tai4) 765-766
Dali (大曆 da4 li4) 766-779
De Zong (德宗 de2 zong1) Li Gua|李适 li3 gua1 780-805 Jianzhong (建中 1jian4 zhong1) 780-783
Xingyuan (興元 xing1 yuan2) 784
Zhenyuan (貞元 zhen1 yuan2) 785-805
Shun Zong (順宗 shun4 zong1) Li Song|李誦 li3 song4 805 Yongzhen (永貞 yong3 zhen1) 805
Xian Zong (憲宗 xian4 zong1) Li Chun|李純 li3 chun2 806-820 Yuanhe (元和 yuan2 he2) 806-820
Mu Zong (穆宗 mu4 zong1) Li Heng|李恆 li3 heng2 821-824 Changqing (長慶 chang2 qing4) 821-824
Jing Zong (敬宗 jing4 zong1) Li Zhan|李湛 li3 zhan4 824-826 Baoli (寶曆 bao3 li4) 824-826
Wen Zong (文宗 wen2 zong1) Li Ang|李昂 li3 ang2 826-840 Baoli (寶曆 bao3 li4) 826
Dahe (大和 da4 he2) or Taihe (tai4 he2 太和) 827-835
Kaicheng (開成 kai1 cheng2) 836-840
Wu Zong (武宗 wu3 zong1) Li Yan|李炎 li3 yan2 840-846 Huichang (會昌 hui4 chang1) 841-846
Xuan Zong (宣宗 xuan1 zong1) Li Chen|李忱 li3 chen2 846-859 Dachong (大中 da4 chong1) 847-859
Yi Zong (懿宗 yi4 zong1) Li Cui|李漼 li3 cui3 859-873 Dachong (大中 da4 chong1) 859
Xiantong (咸通 xian2 tong1) 860-873
Xi Zong (僖宗 xi1 zong1) Li Xuan|李儇 li3 xuan1 873-888 Xiantong (咸通 xian2 tong1) 873-874
Qianfu (乾符 qian2 fu2) 874-879
Guangming (廣明 guang3 ming2) 880-881
Zhonghe (中和 zhong1 he2) 881-885
Guangqi (光啟 guang1 qi3) 885-888
Wende (文德 wen2 de2) 888
Zhao Zong (昭宗 zhao1 zong1) Li Ye|李曄 li3 ye4 888-904 Longji (龍紀 long2 ji4) 889
Dashun (大順 da4 shun4) 890-891
Jingfu (景福 jing3 fu2) 892-893
Qianning (乾寧 qian2 ning2) 894-898
Guanghua (光化 guang1 hua4) 898-901
Tianfu (天復 tian1 fu4) 901-904
Tianyou (天佑 tian1 you4) 904
Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 di4) or 昭宣帝 zhao1 xuan1 di4 see note below Li Zhu|李柷 li3 zhu4 904-907 Tianyou (天佑 tian1 you4) 904-907

Shao Di (少帝 shao4 di4), Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 di4) and 昭宣帝 zhao1 xuan1 di4 are posthumous names. A new column for only three commonly used posthumous names was not be created since other Tang emperors are commonly referred using temple names.



Sovereigns in Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 907-960
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
the Five Dynasties
Convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name
Hou (Later) Liang Dynasty 907-923
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu[?] Wen|朱溫 zhu1 wen1 907-912 Kaiping (開平 kai1 ping2) 907-911
Qianhua (乾化 qian2 hua4) 911-912
Did not exist Mo Di |末帝 mo4 di4 Zhu[?] Zhen|朱瑱 zhu1 zhen4 913-923 Qianhua (乾化 qian2 hua4) 913-9115[?]
Zhenming (貞明 zhen1 ming2) 915-921 Longde (龍德 long2 de2) 921-923
Hou (Later) Tang Dynasty 923-936
Zhuang Zong|莊宗 zhuang1 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Li Cun Xu|李存勗 li3 cun2 xu4 923-926 Tongguang (同光 tong2 guang1) 923-926
Ming Zong|明宗 ming2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Li Si Yuan|李嗣源 li3 si4 yuan2 or Li Dan|李亶 li3 dan3 926-933 Tiancheng (天成 tian1 cheng2) 926-930
Changxing (長興 chang2 xing1) 930-933
Did not exist Min Di|節閔帝 min3 di4 Li Cong Xu|李從厚 li3 cong2 hou4 933-934 Yingshun (應順 ying4 shun4) 913-9115[?]
Did not exist Mo Di |末帝 mo4 di4 Li Cong Ke|李從珂 li3 cong2 ke1 934-936 Qingtai (清泰 qing1 tai4) 934-936
Hou (Later) Jin Dynasty 936-947
Gao Zu|高祖 gao1 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Shi Jing Tang|石敬瑭 shi4 jing4 tang2 936-942 Tianfu (天福 tian1 fu2) 936-942
Did not exist Chu Di|出帝 chu1 di4 Shi Chong Gui|石重貴 shi4 chong2 gui4 942-947 Tianfu (天福 tian1 fu2) 942-944
Kaiyun (開運 kai1 yun4) 944-947
Hou (Later) Han Dynasty 936-947
Gao Zu|高祖 gao1 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Liu Zhi Yuan|劉知遠 liu3 zhi1 yuan3 947-948 Tianfu (天福 tian1 fu2) 947
Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 948
Did not exist Yin Di|隱帝 yin3 di4 Liu Cheng You|劉承祐 liu3 cheng2 you4 948-950 Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 948-950
Hou (Later) Zhou Dynasty 951-960
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Guo Wei|郭威 guo1 wei1 951-954 Guangshun (廣順 guang3 shun4) 951-954
Xiande (顯德 xian3 de2) 954
Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Chai Rong|柴榮 chai2 rong2 954-959 Xiande (顯德 xian3 de2) 954-959
Did not exist Gong Di|恭帝 gong1 di4 Chai Zong Xun|柴宗訓 chai2 zong1 xun4 959-960 Xiande (顯德 xian3 de2) 959-960
the Ten Kingdoms
Convention: use personal names, noticed otherwise
Wu Yue Kingdom 904-978
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Wu Su Wang|武肅王 wu3 su4 wang2 Qian Liu|錢鏐 qian2 liu2 904-932 Tianbao (天寶 tian1 bao3) 908-923
Baoda (寶大 bao3 da4) 923-925
Baozheng (寶正 bao3 zheng4) 925-932
Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) Wen Mu Wang|文穆王 wen2 mu4 wang2 Qian Yuan Quan|錢元瓘 qian2 yuan2 guan4 932-941 Did not exist
Cheng Zong 成宗 cheng2 zong1) Zhong Xian Wang|忠獻王 zhong1 xian4 wang2 Qian Zuo|錢佐 qian2 zuo3 941-947 Did not exist
Did not exist Zhong Xun Wang|忠遜王 zhong1 xun4 wang2 Qian Zong|錢倧 qian2 zong1 947 Did not exist
Did not exist Zhong Yi Wang|忠懿王 zhong1 yi4 wang2 Qian Chu|錢俶 qian2 chu4 947-978 Did not exist
Min Kingdom 909-945 including Yin Kingdom 943-945
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Zhong Yi Wang|忠懿王 zhong1 yi4 wang2 Wang Shen Zhi|王審知 wang2 shen3 zhi1 909-925 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Wang Yan Han|王延翰 wang2 yan2 han4 925-926 Did not exist
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Hui Di (惠帝 hui4 di4) Wang Yan Jun|王延鈞 wang2 yan2 jun1 926-935 Longqi (龍啟 long2 qi3) 933-935
Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 935
Kang Zong (康宗 kang1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Ji Peng|王繼鵬 wang2 ji4 peng2 935-939 Tongwen (通文 tong1 wen2) 936-939
Jing Zong (景宗 jing3 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Yan Xi|王延羲 wang2 yan2 xi1 939-944 Yonglong (永隆 yong3 long2) 939-944
Did not exist Tian De Di (天德帝 tian1 de2 di4) (as Emperor of Yin) Wang Yan Zheng|王延政 wang2 yan2 zheng4 943-945 Tiande (天德 tian1 de2) 943-945
Jing Nan or Nan Ping Kingdom 906-963
Did not exist Wu Xin Wang|武信王 wu3 xin4 wang2 Gao Ji Xing|高季興 gao1 ji4 xing1 909-928 Did not exist
Did not exist Wen Xian Wang|文獻王 wen2 xin4 wang2 Gao Cong Hui|高從誨 gao1 cong2 hui4 928-948 Did not exist
Did not exist Zhen Yi Wang|貞懿王 yi4 wang2 Gao Bao Rong|高寶融 gao1 bao3 rong2 948-960 Did not exist
Did not exist Shi Zhong|侍中 shi4 zhong1 Gao Bao Xu|高寶勗 gao1 bao3 xu4 960-962 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Gao Ji Chong|高繼沖 gao1 ji4 chong1 962-963 Did not exist
Chu Kingdom 897-951
Did not exist Wu Mo Wang|武穆王 wu3 mo4 wang2 Ma Yin|馬殷 ma3 yin1 897-930 Did not exist
Did not exist Heng Yang Wang|衡陽王 heng2 yang2 wang2 Ma Xi Sheng|馬希聲 ma3 xi1 sheng1 930-932 Did not exist
Did not exist Wen Zhao Wang|文昭王 wen2 zhao1 wang2 Ma Xi Fan|馬希範 ma3 xi1 fan4 932-947 Did not exist
Did not exist Fei Wang|廢王 fei4 wang2 Ma Xi Guang|馬希廣 ma3 xi1 guang3 947-950 Did not exist
Did not exist Gong Xiao Wang|恭孝王 gong1 xiao4 wang2 Ma Xi E|馬希萼 ma3 xi1 e4 950 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Ma Xi Chong|馬希崇 ma3 xi1 chong2 950-951 Did not exist
Wu Kingdom 904-937
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Xiao Wu Di|孝武帝 xiao4 wu3 di4 Yang Xing Mi|楊行密 yang2 xing2 mi4 904-905 Tianyao (天祐 tian1 you4) 904-905
Lie Zong|烈宗 lie4 zong1 Jing Di|景帝 jing3 di4 Yang Wo|楊渥 yang2 wo4 905-908 Tianyao (天祐 tian1 you4) 905-908
Gao Zu|高祖 gao1 zu3 Xuan Di|宣帝 xuan1 di4 Yang Long Yan|楊隆演 yang2 long2 yan3 908-921 Tianyao (天祐 tian1 you4) 908-919
Wuyi (武義 wu3 yi4) 919-921
Did not exist Rui Di|睿帝 rui4 di4 Yang Pu|楊溥 yang2 pu3 921-937 Shunyi (順義 shun4 yi4) 921-927
Qianzhen (乾貞 qian2 zhen1) 927-929
Dahe (大和 da4 he2) 929-935
Tianzuo (天祚 tian1 zuo4) 935-937
Nan (Southern) Tang Kingdom 937-975
Convention for this kingdom only : Nan (Southern) Tang + posthumous names. Hou Zhu was referred to as Li Hou Zhu|李後主 li3 hou4 zhu3.
Xian Zhu|先主 xian1 zhu3 or Lie Zu|烈祖 lie4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Li Bian|李(曰 on top of 弁) li3 bian4 937-943 Shengyuan (昇元 sheng1 yuan2) 937-943
Zhong Zhu|中主 zhong1 zhu3 or Yuan Zong|元宗 yuan2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Li Jing|李璟 li3 jing3 943-961 Baoda (保大 bao3 da4) 943-958
Jiaotai (交泰 jiao1 tai4) 958
Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 958
Hou Zhu|後主 hou4 zhu3 Wu Wang|武王 wu3 wang2 Li Yu|李煜 li3 yu4 961-975 Did not exist
Nan (Southern) Han Kingdom 917-971
Gao Zu|高祖 gao1 zu3 Tian Huang Da Di|天皇大帝 tian1 huang2 da4 di4 Liu Yan|劉巖 liu3 yan2 or Liu Yan|劉(龍 on top of 天) liu3 yan3 917-925 Qianheng (乾亨 qian2 heng1) 917-925
Bailong (白龍 bai2 long2) 925-928
Dayou (大有 da4 you3) 928-941
Did not exist Shang Di|殤帝 shang1 di4 Liu Fen|劉玢 liu3 fen1 941-943 Guangtian (光天 guag1 tian1) 941-943
Zhong Zong|中宗 zhong1 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Liu Cheng|劉晟 liu3 cheng2 943-958 Yingqian (應乾 ying4 qian2) 943
Qianhe (乾和 qian4 he2) 943-958
Hou Zhu|後主 hou4 zhu3 Did not exist Liu Chang|劉鋹 liu3 chang3 958-971 Dabao (大寶 da4 bao3) 958-971
Bei (Northern) Han Kingdom 951-979
Shi Zu|世祖 shi4 zu3 Shen Wu Di|神武帝 shen2 wu3 di4 Liu Min|劉旻 liu3 min2 951-954 Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 951-954
Rui Zong|睿宗 rui4 zong1 Xiao He Di|孝和帝 xiao4 he2 di4 Liu Cheng Jun|劉承鈞 liu3 cheng2 jun1 954-970 Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 954-957
Tianhui (天會 tian1 hui4) 957-970
Shao Zhu|少主 shao4 zhu3 Did not exist Liu Ji En|劉繼恩 liu3 ji4 en1 970 Did not exist
Did not exist
Ying Wu Di|英武帝 ying1 wu3 di4 Liu Ji Yuan|劉繼元 liu3 ji4 yuan2 970-982 Guangyun (廣運 guang3 yun4) 970-982
Qian (Former) Shu Kingdom 907 - 925
Gao Zu|高祖 gao1 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Jian|王建 wang2 jian4 907-918 Tianfu (天復 tian1 fu4) 907
Wucheng (武成 wu3 cheng22) 908-910
Yongping (永平 yong3 ping2) 911-915
Tongzheng (通正 tong1 zheng4) 916
Tianhan (天漢 tian1 han4) 917
Guangtian (光天 guang1 tian1) 918
Hou Zhu|後主 hou4 zhu3 Did not exist Wang Yan|王衍 wang2 yan3 918-925 Qiande (乾德 qian2 de2) 918-925
Xiankang (咸康 xian2 kang1) 925
Hou (Later) Shu Kingdom 934 - 965
Gao Zu|高祖 gao1 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Meng Zhi Xiang|孟知祥 meng4 zhi1 xiang2 934 Mingde (明德 ming2 de2) 934
Hou Zhu|後主 hou4 zhu3 Did not exist Meng Chang|孟昶 meng4 chang3 938-965 Mingde (明德 ming2 de2) 934-938
Guangzheng (廣政 guang3 zheng4) 938-965



local independent regimes during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period but traditionally not counted in the Ten Kingdoms
Name of Posts Personal Names Period on post
Wuping and Hunan 節度|jie2 du4 (similar to thema of the Byzantine Empire) 950-963
Wuping strategos (correct English translation?)|武平節度使 wu3 ping2 jie2 du4 shi3 Liu Yan|劉言 liu3 yan2 950-953
Wuping strategos (correct English translation?)|武平節度使 wu3 ping2 jie2 du4 shi3 Wang Kui|王逵 wang2 kui2 or Wang Jin Kui|王進逵 wang2 jin4 kui2 953-956
Hunan strategos (correct English translation?)|湖南節度使 hu2 nan2 jie2 du4 shi3 Zhou Xing Feng|周行逢 zhao1 xing2 feng2 956-962
Hunan strategos (correct English translation?)|湖南節度使 hu2 nan2 jie2 du4 shi3 Zhou Bao Quan|周保權 zhao1 bao3 quan2 962-963
Quanzhang 節度|jie2 du4 (similar to thema of the Byzantine Empire) 945-978
Quanzhang strategos (correct English translation?)|泉漳都指揮使 quan2 zhang1 du1 zhi3 hui1 shi3 Liu Cong Xiao|留從效 liu2 cong2 xiao4 945-962
Quanzhang strategos (correct English translation?)|泉漳留守 quan2 zhang1 liu2 shou3 Liu Shao Zi|留紹鎡 liu2 shao4 zi1 962
Quanzhang strategos (correct English translation?)|泉漳節度使 quan2 zhang1 jie2 du4 shi3 Zhang Han Si|張漢思 zhang1 han4 si1 962-963
Quanzhang strategos (correct English translation?)|泉漳節度使 quan2 zhang1 jie2 du4 shi3 Chen Hong Jin|陳洪進 chen2 hong2 jin4 963-978



Liao dynasty 907-1125
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tian Zuo Di who is referred using "Liao" + posthumous name
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yeluu A Bao Ji|耶律阿保機 ye1 luu4 a1 bao3 ji1 907-926 Shence (神冊 shen2 ce4) 916-922
Tianzan (天贊 tian1 zan4) 922-926
Tianxian (天顯 tian1 xian3) 926
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yeluu De Guang|耶律德光 ye1 luu4 de2 guang1 926-947 Tianxian (天顯 tian1 xian3) 927-938
Huitong (會同 hui4 tong2) 938-947
Datong (大同 da4 tong2) 947
Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yeluu Ruan|耶律阮 ye1 luu4 ruan3 947-951 Tianlu (天祿 tian1 lu4) 947-951
Mu Zong (穆宗 mu4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yeluu Jing|耶律璟 ye1 luu4 jing3 951-969 Yingli (應曆 ying4 li4) 951-969
Jing Zong (景宗 jing3 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yeluu Xian|耶律賢 ye1 luu4 xian2 969-982 Baoning (保寧 bao3 ning2) 969-979
Qianheng (乾亨 qian2 heng1) 979-982
Sheng Zong (聖宗 sheng4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yeluu Long Xu|耶律隆緒 ye1 luu4 long2 xu4 982-1031 Qianheng (乾亨 qian2 heng1) 982
Tonghe (統和 tong3 he2) 983-1012
Kaitai (開泰 kai1 tai4) 1012-1021
Taiping (太平 tai4 ping2) 1021-1031
Xing Zong (興宗 xing1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yeluu Zong Zhen|耶律宗真 ye1 luu4 zong1 zhen1 1031-1055 Jingfu (景福 jing3 fu2) 1031-1032
Chongxi (重熙 chong2 xi1) 1032-1055
Dao Zong (道宗 dao4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yeluu Hong Ji|耶律洪基 ye1 luu4 hong2 ji1 1055-1101 Qingning (清寧 qing1 ning2) 1055-1064
Xianyong (咸雍 xian2 yong1) 1065-1074
Taikang (太康 tai4 kang1) or Dakang (大康 da4 kang1) 1075-1084
Daan (大安 da4 an1) 1085-1094
Shouchang (壽昌 shou4 chang1) or Shoulong (壽隆 shou4 long2) 1095-1101
Did not exist Tian Zuo Di (天祚帝 tian1 zuo4 di4) Yeluu Yan Xi|耶律延禧 ye1 luu4 yan2 xi1 1101-1125 Qiantong (乾統 qian2 tong3) 1101-1110
Tianqing (天慶 tian1 qing4) 1111-1120
Baoda (保大 bao3 da4) 1121-1125



Xi (Western) Liao dynasty (also called Kara-Khitai) 1124-1221
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Convention Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: check each sovereign
De Zong (德宗 de2 zong1) Tian You Wu Lie Di|天祐武烈帝 tian1 you4 wu3 lie4 di4 Yeluu Da Shi|耶律大石 ye1 luu4 da4 shi2 or Yeluu Da Shi|耶律達實 ye1 luu4 da2 shi2 use personal name 1124-1144 Yanqing (延慶 yan2 qing4) 1124-1134
Kangguo (康國 kang1 guo2) 1134-1144
Did not exist Qian Tian Hou (感天后 gan3 tian1 hou4) Ta Bu Yan|塔不煙 ta3 bu4 yan1 "Xi Liao" + posthumous name 1144-1150 Xianqing (咸清 xian2 qing1) 1144-1150
Ren Zong (仁宗 ren2 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yeluu Yi Lie|耶律夷列 ye1 luu4 yi2 lie4 "Xi Liao" + temple name 1150-1164 Shaoxing (紹興 shao4 xing1) 1150-1164
Did not exist Cheng Tian Hou (承天后 cheng2 tian1 hou4) Yeluu Pu Su Wan|耶律普速完 pu3 su4 wan2 "Xi Liao" + posthumous name 1164-1178 Chongfu (崇福 chong2 fu2) 1164-1178
Did not exist Mo Zhu |末主 mo4 zhu3 or Mo Di |末帝 mo4 di4 Yeluu Zhi Lu Gu|耶律直魯古 ye1 luu4 zhi2 lu3 gu3 use personal name 1178-1211 Tianxi (天禧 tian1 xi1) 1178-1211
Did not exist Did not exist Qu Chu Luu|屈出律 qu1 chu1 luu4 use personal name 1211-1221 Did not exist



Song dynasty 960-1279
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: "Song" + temple name or posthumous name except last emperor who was revered as Song Di Bing (宋帝昺 song4 di4 bing3)
Bei (Northern) Song dynasty 960- 1127
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Kuang Yin|趙匡胤 zhao4 kuang1 yin4 960-976 Jianlong (建隆 jian4 long2) 960-963
Qiande (乾德 qian2 de2) 963-968
Kaibao (開寶 kai1 bao3) 968-976
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Kuang Yi|趙匡義 zhao4 kuang1 yi4 or Zhao Guang Yi|趙光義 zhao4 guang1 yi4 976-997 Taipingxingguo (太平興國 tai4 ping2 xing1 guo2) 976-984
Yongxi (雍熙 yong1 xi1) 984-987
Duangong (端拱 duan1 gong3) 988-989
Chunhua (淳化 chun2 hua4) 990-994
Zhidao (至道 zhi4 dao4) 995-997
Zhen Zong (真宗 zhen1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Heng|趙恆 zhao4 heng2 997-1022 Xianping (咸平 xian2 ping2) 998-1003
Jingde (景德 jing3 de2) 1004-1007
Dazhongxiangfu (大中祥符 da4 zhong1 xiang2 fu2) 1008-1016
Tianxi (天禧 tian1 xi1) 1017-1021
Qianxing (乾興 qian2 xing1) 1022
Ren Zong (仁宗 ren2 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Zhen|趙禎 zhao4 zhen1 1022-1063 Tiansheng (天聖 tian1 sheng4) 1023-1032
Mingdao (明道ming2 dao4) 1032-1033
Jingyou (景祐 jing3 you4) 1034-1038
Baoyuan (寶元 bao3 yuan2) 1038-1040
Kangding (康定 kang1 ding4) 1040-1041
Qingli (慶曆 qing4 li4) 1041-1048
Huangyou (皇祐 huang2 you4) 1049-1054
Zhihe (至和 zhi4 he2) 1054-1056
Jiayou (嘉祐 jia1 you4) 1056-1063
Ying Zong (英宗 ying1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Shu|趙曙 zhao4 shu4 1063-1067 Zhiping (治平 zhi4 ping2) 1064-1067
Shen Zong (神宗 shen2 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Xu|趙頊 zhao4 xu1 1067-1085 Xining (熙寧 xi1 ning2) 1068-1077
Yuanfeng (元豐 yuan2 feng1) 1078-1085
Zhe Zong (哲宗 zhe2 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Xu|趙煦 zhao4 xu3 1085-1100 Yuanyou (元祐 yuan2 you4) 1086-1094
Shaosheng (紹聖 shao4 sheng4) 1094-1098
Yuanfu (元符 yuan2 fu2) 1098-1100
Hui Zong (徽宗 hui1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Ji|趙佶 zhao4 ji2 1100-1125 Jianzhongjingguo (建中靖國 jian4 zhong1 jing4 guo2) 1101
Chongning (崇寧 chong2 ning2) 1102-1106
Daguan (大觀 da4 guan1) 1107-1110
Zhenghe (政和 zheng4 he2) 1111-1118
Chonghe (重和 chong2 he2) 1118-1119
Xuanhe (宣和 xuan1 he2) 1119-1125
Qin Zong (欽宗 qin1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Huan|趙桓 zhao4 huan2 1125-1127 Jingkang (靖康 jing4 kang1) 1126-1127
Nan (Southern) Song dynasty 1127- 1279
Gao Zong (高宗 gao1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Gou|趙構 zhao4 gou4 1127-1162 Jianyan (靖炎 jing4 yan2) 1127-1130
Shaoxing (紹興 shao4 xing1) 1131-1162
Xiao Zong (孝宗 xiao4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Shen|趙慎 zhao4 shen4 1162-1189 Longxing (隆興 long2 xing1) 1163-1164
Qiandao (乾道 qian2 dao4) 1165-1173
Chunxi (淳熙 chun2 xi1) 1174-1189
Guang Zong (光宗 guang1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Dun|趙惇 zhao4 dun1 1189-1194 Shaoxi (紹熙 chun2 xi1) 1190-1194
Ning Zong (寧宗 ning2 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Kuo|趙擴 zhao4 kuo4 1194-1224 Qingyuan (慶元 qing4 yuan2) 1195-1200
Jiakai (嘉泰 jia1 kai4) 1201-1204
Kaixi (開禧 kai1 xi1) 1205-1207
Jiading (嘉定 jia1 ding4) 1208-1224
Li Zong (理宗 li3 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Yun|趙昀 zhao4 yun2 1224-1264 Baoqing (寶慶 bao3 qing4) 1225-1227
Shaoding (紹定 shao4 ding4) 1228-1233
Duanping (端平 duan1 ping2) 1234-1236
Jiaxi (嘉熙 jia1 xi1) 1237-1240
Chunyou (淳祐 chun2 you4) 1241-1252
Baoyou (寶祐 bao3 you4) 1253-1258
Kaiqing (開慶 kai1 qing4) 1259
Jingding (景定 jing3 ding4) 1260-1264
Du Zong (度宗 du4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Qi|趙祺 zhao4 qi2 1264-1274 Xianchun (咸淳 xian2 chun2) 1265-1274
did not exist Gong Di (恭帝 gong1 di4) Zhao Xian|趙顯 zhao4 xian3 1274-1276 Deyou (德祐 de2 you4) 1275-1276
Duan Zong (端宗 duan1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Shi|趙是 zhao4 shi4 1276-1278 Jingyan (景炎 jing3 yan2) 1276-1278
Did not exist Di (帝 di4) or Wei Wang (衛王 wei4 wang2) Zhao Bing|趙昺 zhao4 bing3 1278-1279 Xiangxing (祥興 xiang2 xing1) 1278-1279



Western Xia 1032-1227
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: "Western Xia" + temple name
Jing Zong (景宗 jing3 zong1) Wu Lie Di (武烈帝 wu3 lie4 di4) Li Yuan Hao|李元昊 li3 yuan2 hao4 1032-1048 Xiandao (顯道 xian3 dao4) 1032-1034
Kaiyun (開運 kai1 yun4) 1034
Guangping (廣平 guang3 ping2) 1035-1036
Daqing (大慶 da4 qing4) 1036-1038
Tianshoulifayanzuo (天授禮法延祚 tian1 shuo4 li3 fa3 yan2 zuo4) 1038-1048
Yi Zong (毅宗 yi4 zong1) Zhao Ying Di (昭英帝 zhao1 ying1 di4) Li Liang Zuo|李諒祚 li3 liang4 zuo4 1048-1067 Yansiningguo (延嗣寧國 yan2 si4 ning2 guo2) 1048-1049
Tianyousuisheng (天祐垂聖 tian1 you4 chui2 sheng4) 1050-1052
Fushengchengdao (福聖承道 fu2 sheng4 cheng2 dao4) 1053-1056
Chedu (奲都 che3 du1) 1036-1038
Gonghua (拱化 gong3 hua4) 1063-1067
Hui Zong (惠宗 hui4 zong1) Kang Jing Di (康靖帝 kang1 jing4 di4) Li Bing Chang|李秉常 li3 bing3 chang2 1067-1086 Qiandao (乾道 qian2 dao4) 1067-1069
Tiancilishengguoqing (天賜禮盛國慶 tian1 ci4 li3 sheng4 guo2 qing4) 1070-1074
Daan (大安 da4 an1) 1075-1085
Tiananliding (天安禮定 tian1 an1 li3 ding4) 1085-1086
Chong Zong (崇宗 chong2 zong1) Sheng Wen Di (聖文帝 sheng4 wen2 di4) Li Qian Shun|李乾順 li3 qian2 shun4 1086-1139 Tianyizhiping (天儀治平 tian1 yi2 shi4 ping2) 1086-1089
Tianyouminan (天祐民安 tian1 you4 min2 an1) 1090-1097
Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 1098-1100
Zhenguan (貞觀 zhen1 guan1) 1101-1113
Yong (雍寧 yong1 ning2) 1114-1118
Yuande (元德 yuan2 de2) 1119-1127
Zhengde (正德 zheng4 de2) 1127-1134
Dade (大德 da4 de2) 1135-1139
Ren Zong (仁宗 ren2 zong1) Sheng Zhen Di (聖禎帝 sheng4 zhen1 di4) Li Ren Xiao|李仁孝 li3 ren2 xiao4 1139-1193 Daqing (大慶 da4 qing4) 1139-1143
Renqing (人慶 ren2 qing4) 1144-1148
Tiancheng (天盛 tian1 sheng4) 1149-1170
Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 1170-1193
Huan Zong (桓宗 huan2 zong1) Zhao Jian Di (昭簡帝 zhao1 jian3 di4) Li Chun You|李純佑 li3 chun2 you4 1193-1206 Tianqing (天慶 tian1 qing4) 1193-1206
Xiang Zong (襄宗 xiang1 zong1) Jing Wu Di (景武帝 jing3 wu3 di4) Li An Quan|李安全 li3 an1 quan2 1206-1211 Qingtian (慶天 qing4 tian1) 1206-1209
Huangjian (皇建 huang2 jian4) 1210-1211
Shen Zong (神宗 shen2 zong1) Ying Wen Di (英文帝 ying1 wen2 di4) Li Zun Xu|李遵頊 li3 zun1 xu4 1211-1223 Guangding (光定 guang1 ding4) 1211-1223
Xian Zong (獻宗 xian4 zong1) Did not exist Li De Wang|李德旺 li3 de2 wang4 1223-1226 Qianding (乾定 qian2 ding4) 1223-1226
Did not exist Mo Zhu |末主 mo4 zhu3 Li Xian|李晛 li3 xian4 1226-1227 Baoyi (寶義 bao3 yi4) 1226-1227



Jin dynasty 1115-1234
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: "Jin" + temple name or posthumous name
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Wan-Yan A Gu Da|完顏阿骨打 wan2 yan2 a1 gu2 da3 1115-1123 Shouguo (收國 shou1 guo2) 1115-1116
Tianfu (天輔 tian1 fu3) 1117-1123
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Wan-Yan Wu Qi Mai|完顏吳乞買 wan2 yan2 wu2 qi3 mai3 or Wan-Yan (Sheng or Cheng)|完顏晟 wan2 yan2 (sheng4 or cheng2) 1123-1134 Tianhui (天會 tian1 hui4) 1123-1134
Xi Zong (熙宗 xi1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Wan-Yan He-La|完顏合剌 wan2 yan2 he2 la2 or Wan-Yan Dan|完顏亶 wan2 yan2 dan3 1135-1149 Tianhui (天會 tian1 hui4) 1135-1138
Tianjuan (天眷 tian1 juan4) 1138-1141
Huangtong (皇統 huang2 tong3) 1141-1149
Did not exist Hai Ling Wang|海陵王 hai3 ling2 wang2 Wan-Yan Liang|完顏亮 wan2 yan2 liang4 1149-1161 Tiande (天德 tian1 de2) 1149-1153
Zhenyuan (貞元 zhen1 yuan2) 1153-1156
Zhenglong (正隆 zheng4 long2) 1156-1161
Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Wan-Yan Yong|完顏雍 wan2 yan2 yong1 1161-1189 Dading (大定 da4 ding4) 1161-1189
Zhang Zong (章宗 zhang1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Wan-Yan Jing|完顏璟 wan2 yan2 jing3 1190-1208 Mingchang (明昌 ming2 chang1) 1190-1196
Chengan (承安 cheng2 an1) 1196-1200
Taihe (泰和 tai4 he2) 1200-1208
Did not exist Wei Shao Wang|衛紹王 wei4 shao4 wang2 or Wei Wang (衛王 wei4 wang2) Wan-Yan Yong Ji|完顏永濟 wan2 yan2 yong3 ji4 1209-1213 Daan (大安 da4 an1) 1209-1212
Chongqing (崇慶 chong2 qing4) 1212-1213
Zhining (至寧 zhi4 ning2) 1213
Xuan Zong (宣宗 xuan1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Wan-Yan Xun|完顏珣 wan2 yan2 xun2 1213-1223 Zhenyou (貞祐 zhen1 you4) 1213-1217
Xingding (興定 xing1 ding4) 1217-1222
Yuangunag (元光 yuan2 guang1) 1222-1223
Ai Zong (哀宗 ai1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Wan-Yan Shou Xu|完顏守緒 wan2 yan2 shou3 xu4 1224-1234 Zhengda (正大 zheng4 da4) 1224-1232
Kaixing (開興 kai1 xing1) 1232
Tianxing (天興 tian1 xing1) 1232-1234
Did not exist
Mo Di |末帝 mo4 di4) Wan-Yan Cheng Lin|完顏承麟 wan2 yan2 cheng2 lin2 1234 Did not exist



Yuan Dynasty 1271-1368
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Khan Names Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: use first name (e.g. Temujin) or Khan names before Kublai Khan. Use "Yuan" + temple name or posthumous name after. A mix of the three for Kublai Khan.
Note: 1) all first names of the sovereigns were those more familiar to western readers. 2) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with the Timur (Timurlane or Tamerlane) who attempted to retore the Mongolian Empire in Central Asia.
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Genghis Khan Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Temujin|孛兒只斤鐵木真 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 tie3 mu4 zhen1 1206-1227 Did not exist
Rui Zong (睿宗 rui4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign ? Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Tolui|孛兒只斤拖雷 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 tuo1 lei2 1228 Did not exist
Tai Zong|太宗 tai4 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Ogedei Khan Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Ogedei|孛兒只斤窩闊台 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 wo1 kuo4 tai2 1229-1241 Did not exist
Did not exist
Did not exist
? Töregene Khâtûn|乃馬真 nai3 ma3 zhen1 regent 1241-1246 Did not exist
Ding Zong|定宗 ding4 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Güyük Khan Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Güyük|孛兒只斤貴由 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 gui4 yuo2 1246-1248 Did not exist
Did not exist
Did not exist
? Oghul Ghaymish|海米失 hai3 mi3 shi1 regent 1248-1251 Did not exist
Xian Zong|憲宗 xian4 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Möngke Khan Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Möngke|孛兒只斤蒙哥 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 meng2 ge1 1251-1259 Did not exist
Shi Zu|世祖 shi4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Kublai Khan Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Kublai|孛兒只斤忽必烈 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 hu1 bi4 lie4 1260-1294 Zhongtong (中統 zhong1 tong3) 1260-1264
Zhiyuan (至元 zhi4 yuan2) 1264-1294
Cheng Zong|成宗 cheng2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Temür Öljeytü Khân Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Temür|孛兒只斤鐵木耳 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 tie3 mu4 er2 1295-1307 Yuanzhen (元貞 yuan2 zhen1) 1295-1297
Dade (大德 da4 de2) 1297-1307
Wu Zong|武宗 cheng2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Qayshan Gülük Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Qayshan|孛兒只斤海山 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 hai3 shan1 1308-1311 Zhida (至大 zhi4 da4) 1308-1311
Ren Zong|仁宗 ren2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Ayurparibhadra Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Ayurparibhadra|孛兒只斤愛育黎拔力八達 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 ai4 yu4 li2 ba2 li4 ba1 da2 1312-1320 Huangqing (皇慶 huang2 qing4) 1312-1313
Yanyou (延祐 yan2 you4) 1314-1320
Ying Zong|英宗 ying1 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Suddhipala Gege'en Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Suddhipala|孛兒只斤碩德八剌 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 shuo4 de2 ba1 la2 1321-1323 Zhizhi (至治 zhi4 zhi4) 1321-1323
Convention: for the following sovereign only, use "yuan" + posthumous name, i.e. 元泰定帝|yuan2 tai4 ding4 di4.
Jin Zong|晉宗 jin4 zong1 Tai Ding Di|泰定帝 tai4 ding4 di4 Yesün-Temür Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Yesün-Temür|孛兒只斤也孫鐵木兒 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 ye3 sun1 tie3 mu4 er2 1321-1328 Taiding (泰定 tai4 ding4) 1321-1328
Zhihe (致和 zhi4 he2) 1328
Did not exist Tian Shun Di|天順帝 tian1 shun4 di4 Arigaba Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Arigaba|孛兒只斤阿速吉八 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 a1 su4 ji2 ba1 1328 Tianshun (天順 tian1 shun4) 1328
Wen Zong|文宗 wen2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Jijaghatu Toq-Temür Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Toq-Temür|孛兒只斤圖鐵木兒 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 tu2 tie3 mu4 er2 1328-1329 and 1329-1332 Tianli (天曆 tian1 li4) 1328-1330
Zhishun (至順 zhi4 shun4) 1330-1332
Ming Zong|明宗 ming2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Qoshila Qutuqtu Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Qoshila|孛兒只斤和世剌 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 he2 shi4 la4 1329 Did not exist 1329
Ning Zong|寧宗 ning2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Irinchibal Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Irinchibal|孛兒只斤懿璘質班 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 yi4 lin2 zhi2 ban1 1332 Zhishun (至順 zhi4 shun4) 1332
Convention: for the following sovereign only, use "yuan" + posthumous name.
Hui Zong|惠宗 hui4 zong1 Shun Di|順帝 shun4 di4 Toghan-Temür Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Toghan-Temür|孛兒只斤妥懽鐵木兒 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 tuo3 huan1 tie3 mu4 er2 1333-1370 Zhishun (至順 zhi4 shun4) 1333
Yuantong (元統 yuan2 tong3) 1333-1335
Zhiyuan (至元 zhi4 yuan2) 1335-1340
Zhizheng (至正 zhi4 zheng4) 1341-1368
Zhiyuan (至元 zhi4 yuan2) 1368-1370



Yuan Dynasty (after expelled from China by Ming in 1368) 1368 - mid 14th century
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Khan Names Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: use khan names or personal names.
Note: 1) all first names of the sovereigns were those more familiar to western readers. 2) Timur or Temür means the Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with the Timur (Timurlane or Tamerlane) who attempted to retore the Mongolian Empire in Central Asia.
Convention: for the following sovereign only, use "yuan" + posthumous name.
Hui Zong|惠宗 hui4 zong1 (same person as the last Yuan emperor in China) Shun Di|順帝 shun4 di4 Toghan-Temür Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Toghan-Temür|孛兒只斤妥懽鐵木兒 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 tuo3 huan1 tie3 mu4 er2 1333-1370 Zhishun (至順 zhi4 shun4) 1333
Yuantong (元統 yuan2 tong3) 1333-1335
Zhiyuan (至元 zhi4 yuan2) 1335-1340
Zhizheng (至正 zhi4 zheng4) 1341-1368
Zhiyuan (至元 zhi4 yuan2) 1368-1370
Zhao Zong|昭宗 zhao1 zong1 Did not exist Biliketu Khan? Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Ayushilidrala ? |孛兒只斤愛育識里達臘 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 ai4 yu4 shi4 li3 da2 la4 1370-1378 Xuanguang (宣光 xuan1 guang1) 1371-1378
Did not exist Did not exist Usahar Khan? Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin Togus-Temür|孛兒只斤脫古思鐵木兒 bei4 er2 zhi1 jin1 tuo1 gu3 si1 tie3 mu4 er2 1378-1387 Tianguang (天光 tian1 guang1) 1378-1387
Note: ....5 more khans before the Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin family stepped down from the khan throne....

name transliteration form Mongolian:

Temür Öljeytü Khân (cheng)
Qayshan Gülük Hai-Shan (wu)
Ayurparibhadra Ayurbarwada (ren)
Suddhipala Gege'en Shidebala (ying)
Yesün-Temür (tai ding di)
Arigaba Aragibag (tian shun di)
Jijaghatu Toq-Temür (wen)
Qoshila Qutuqtu (ming2)
Rinchenpal Irinchibal (ning2)
Toghan-Temür (shun di)
? (zhao)
Togus-Temür (last with era name)



Ming Dynasty 1368-1644
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: use "Ming" + era names + "Di" or era names + "Di". For example, Ming Hong Wu Di|明洪武帝 ming2 hong2 wu3 di4.
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu Yuan Zheng|朱元璋 zhu1 yuan2 zhang1 1368-1398 Hongwu (洪武 hong2 wu3) 1368-1398
Did not exist Hui Di|惠帝 hui4 di4 Zhu Yun Wen|朱允炆 zhu1 yun3 wen2 1399-1402 Jianwen (建文 jian4 wen2) 1399-1402
Cheng Zu|成祖 cheng2 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu Di|朱棣 zhu1 di4 1403-1424 Yongle 永樂 yong3 le4 1403-1424
Ren Zong|仁宗 ren2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu Gao Chi|朱高熾 zhu1 gao1 chi4 1425 Hongxi|洪熙 hong2 xi1 1425
Xuan Zong|宣宗 xuan1 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu Zhan Ji|朱瞻基 zhu1 zhan1 ji1 1426-1435 Xuande|宣德 xuan1 de2 1426-1435
Ying Zong|英宗 ying1 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu Qi Zhen|朱祁鎮 zhu1 qi2 zhen4 1436-1449 and 1457-1464 Zhengtong|正統 zheng4 tong3 1436-1449
Tianshun|天順 tian1 shun4 1457-1464
Note: Ying Zong is often referred to as Ming Zheng Tong Di|明正統帝 ming2 zheng4 tong3 di4 though his second era name was Tianshun.
Dai Zong|代宗 dai4 zong1 Jing Di|景帝 jing3 di4 Zhu Qi Yu|朱祁鈺 zhu1 qi2 yu4 1450-1457 Jingtai|景泰 jing3 tai4 1450-1457
Xian Zong|憲宗 xian4 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu Jian Shen|朱見深 zhu1 jian4 shen1 1465-1487 Chenghua|成化 cheng2 hua4 1465-1487
Xiao Zong|孝宗 xiao4 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu You Tang|朱祐樘 zhu1 you4 tang2 1488-1505 Hongzhi|弘治 hong2 zhi4 1488-1505
Wu Zong|武宗 wu3 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu Hou Zhao|朱厚照 zhu1 hou4 zhao4 1506-1521 Zhengde|正德 zheng4 de2 1506-1521
Shi Zong|世宗 shi4 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu Hou Cong|朱厚熜 zhu1 hou4 cong1 1522-1566 Jiajing|嘉靖 jia1 jing4 1522-1566
Mu Zong|穆宗 mu4 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu Zai Gou|朱栽垢 zhu1 zai1 gou4 1567-1572 Longqing|隆慶 long2 qing4 1567-1572
Shen Zong|神宗 shen2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu Yi Jun|朱翊鈞 zhu1 yi4 jun1 1573-1620 Wanli|萬歷 wan4 li4 1573-1620
Guang Zong|光宗 guang1 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu Chang Luo|朱常洛 zhu1 chang2 luo4 1620 Taichang|泰昌 tai4 chang1 1620
Xi Zong|熹宗 xi1 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu You Xiao|朱由校 zhu1 you2 xiao4 1621-1627 Tianqi|天啟 tian1 qi3 1621-1627
Si Zong|思宗 si1 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu You Jian|朱由檢 zhu1 you2 jian3 1628-1644 Chongzhen|崇禎 chong2 zhen1 1628-1644



Kings of Nan (Southern) Ming
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: use "Nan (Southern) Ming" + era names or pothumous name. For example, Southern Ming Yong Li Di|南明永曆帝 nan2 ming2 yong3 li4 di4.
? Fu Wang|福王 fu2 wang2 or ? 帝|? di4 Zhu You Song|朱由崧 zhu1 you2 song1 ? ?
? Lu Wang|魯王 lu3 wang2 Zhu Yi Hai|朱以海 zhu1 yi3 hai3 ? Did not exist
? Tang Wang|唐王 tang2 wang2 or ? 帝|? di4 Zhu Yu Jian|朱聿鍵 zhu1 yu4 jian4 ? ?
? Tang Wang|唐王 tang2 wang2 or ? 帝|? di4 Zhu Yu Ming|朱聿銘 zhu1 yu4 ming2 ? ?
Did not exit Gui Wang|桂王 gui4 wang2 Zhu You Lang|朱由榔 zhu1 you2 lang2 ? Yongli|永曆 yong3 li4



Qing Dynasty 1616-1911
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
All first names in bold.
Convention: use "Qing" + era names + Di or era names + Di except the first two. For example, Emperor Kangxi (Kangxi Di)|康熙帝 kang1 xi1 di4.
Convention: for this sovereign only use Hou Jin Tai Zu|後金太祖 hou4 jin1 tai4 zu3 or first name.
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Ai-xin-jue-luo Nu-er-ha-chi|愛新覺羅努爾哈赤 ai4 xin1 jue2 luo2 nu3 er3 ha1 chi4 1616-1626 Tianming (天命 tian1 ming4) 1616-1626
Convention: for this sovereign only use Qing Tai Zong|清太宗 qing1 tai4 zong1 or first name.
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Ai-xin-jue-luo Huang-tai-ji|愛新覺羅皇太極 ai4 xin1 jue2 luo2 huang2 tai4 ji2 1627-1643 Tiancong (天聰 tian1 cong1) 1627-1636
Chongde|崇德 chong2 de2 1636-1643
Shi Zu|世祖 shi4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Ai-xin-jue-luo Fu-lin|愛新覺羅福臨 ai4 xin1 jue2 luo2 fu2 lin2 1644-1661 Shunzhi (順治 shun4 zhi4) 1644-1661
Sheng Zu|聖祖 sheng4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Ai-xin-jue-luo Xuan-ye|愛新覺羅玄燁 ai4 xin1 jue2 luo2 xuan2 ye4 1662-1722 Kangxi (康熙 kang1 xi1) 1662-1722
Shi Zong|世宗 shi4 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Ai-xin-jue-luo Yin-zhen|愛新覺羅胤禛 ai4 xin1 jue2 luo2 yin4 zhen1 1723-1735 Yongzheng (雍正 yong1 zheng4) 1723-1735
Gao Zong|高宗 gao1 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Ai-xin-jue-luo Hong-li|愛新覺羅弘曆 ai4 xin1 jue2 luo2 hong2 li4 1736-1795 Qianlong (乾隆 qian2 long2) 1736-1795
Ren Zong|仁宗 ren2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Ai-xin-jue-luo Yong-yan|愛新覺羅顒琰 ai4 xin1 jue2 luo2 yong2 yan3 1796-1820 Jiaqing (嘉慶 jia1 qing4) 1796-1820
Xuan Zong|宣宗 xuan1 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Ai-xin-jue-luo Min-ning|愛新覺羅旻寧 ai4 xin1 jue2 luo2 min2 ning2 1821-1850 Daoguang (道光 dao4 guang1) 1821-1850
Wen Zong|文宗 wen2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Ai-xin-jue-luo Yi-zhu|愛新覺羅奕(言 replace 貝 in 貯) ai4 xin1 jue2 luo2 yi4 zhu3 1851-1861 Xianfeng (咸豐 xian2 feng1) 1851-1861
Mu Zong|穆宗 mu4 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Ai-xin-jue-luo Zai-chun|愛新覺羅載淳 ai4 xin1 jue2 luo2 zai4 chun2 1862-1874 Tongzhi (同治 tong2 zhi4) 1862-1874
De Zong|德宗 de zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Ai-xin-jue-luo Zai-tian|愛新覺羅載湉 ai4 xin1 jue2 luo2 zai4 tian2 1875-1908 Guangshui (光緒 guang1 xu4) 1875-1908
Convention: for this sovereign only use Xuantong Emperor (宣統帝 xuan1 tong3 di4) or personal name.
Did not exist Mo Di|末帝 mo4 di4 Ai-xin-jue-luo Pu-yi 愛新覺羅溥儀 ai4 xin1 jue2 luo2 pu3 yi2 1909-1911 Xuantong (宣統 xuan1 tong3) 1909-1911



Sovereigns in Taiping Rebellion
Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
All first names in bold.
Hong Xiu-quan|洪秀全 hong2 xiu4 quan2 ? ?
Hong Tian-gui-fu|洪天貴福 hong2 tian1 gui4 fu2 ? ?



The Hongxian
Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
All first names in bold.
Yuan Shi-Kai袁世凱 yuan2 shi4 kai3 1916 Hongxian (洪憲 hong2 xian4) 1916


See also:



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