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Song Dynasty (960-1279)

The Song Dynasty (宋朝 960-1279) followed the Period of the Five Dynasties and the Ten Kingdoms and preceded the Yuan Dynasty in China. The period is divided into the Northern Song (until 1126) in which the Song controlled both Northern and Southern China and when the capital was in Kaifeng, and the Southern Song in which the Song lost control of Northern China to the Liao dynasty and then Jin dynasty and retreated south of the Yangtze to form its capital at Hangzhou. Because Chinese diplomatic theory did not recognize relations between equal states, the Southern Song was technically a tributary state of the northern dynasty.

major battles: Battle of Xiangyang, Battle of Yamen



Song dynasty 960-1279
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: "Song" + temple name or posthumous name except last emperor who was revered as Song Di Bing[?] (宋帝昺 song4 di4 bing3)
Bei (Northern) Song dynasty, 960- 1127
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Kuang Yin|趙匡胤 zhao4 kuang1 yin4 960-976 Jianlong (建隆 jian4 long2) 960-963
Qiande (乾德 qian2 de2) 963-968
Kaibao (開寶 kai1 bao3) 968-976
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Kuang Yi|趙匡義 zhao4 kuang1 yi4 or Zhao Guang Yi|趙光義 zhao4 guang1 yi4 976-997 Taipingxingguo (太平興國 tai4 ping2 xing1 guo2) 976-984
Yongxi (雍熙 yong1 xi1) 984-987
Duangong (端拱 duan1 gong3) 988-989
Chunhua (淳化 chun2 hua4) 990-994
Zhidao (至道 zhi4 dao4) 995-997
Zhen Zong (真宗 zhen1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Heng|趙恆 zhao4 heng2 997-1022 Xianping (咸平 xian2 ping2) 998-1003
Jingde (景德 jing3 de2) 1004-1007
Dazhongxiangfu (大中祥符 da4 zhong1 xiang2 fu2) 1008-1016
Tianxi (天禧 tian1 xi1) 1017-1021
Qianxing (乾興 qian2 xing1) 1022
Ren Zong (仁宗 ren2 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Zhen|趙禎 zhao4 zhen1 1022-1063 Tiansheng (天聖 tian1 sheng4) 1023-1032
Mingdao (明道ming2 dao4) 1032-1033
Jingyou (景祐 jing3 you4) 1034-1038
Baoyuan (寶元 bao3 yuan2) 1038-1040
Kangding (康定 kang1 ding4) 1040-1041
Qingli (慶曆 qing4 li4) 1041-1048
Huangyou (皇祐 huang2 you4) 1049-1054
Zhihe (至和 zhi4 he2) 1054-1056
Jiayou (嘉祐 jia1 you4) 1056-1063
Ying Zong (英宗 ying1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Shu|趙曙 zhao4 shu4 1063-1067 Zhiping (治平 zhi4 ping2) 1064-1067
Shen Zong (神宗 shen2 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Xu|趙頊 zhao4 xu1 1067-1085 Xining (熙寧 xi1 ning2) 1068-1077
Yuanfeng (元豐 yuan2 feng1) 1078-1085
Zhe Zong (哲宗 zhe2 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereignZhao Xu|趙煦 zhao4 xu3 1085-1100 Yuanyou (元祐 yuan2 you4) 1086-1094
Shaosheng (紹聖 shao4 sheng4) 1094-1098
Yuanfu (元符 yuan2 fu2) 1098-1100
Hui Zong (徽宗 hui1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Ji|趙佶 zhao4 ji2 1100-1125 Jianzhongjingguo (建中靖國 jian4 zhong1 jing4 guo2) 1101
Chongning (崇寧 chong2 ning2) 1102-1106
Daguan (大觀 da4 guan1) 1107-1110
Zhenghe (政和 zheng4 he2) 1111-1118
Chonghe (重和 chong2 he2) 1118-1119
Xuanhe (宣和 xuan1 he2) 1119-1125
Qin Zong (欽宗 qin1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Huan|趙桓 zhao4 huan2 1125-1127 Jingkang (靖康 jing4 kang1) 1126-1127
Nan (Southern) Song dynasty, 1127- 1279
Gao Zong (高宗 gao1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Gou|趙構 zhao4 gou4 1127-1162 Jianyan (靖炎 jing4 yan2) 1127-1130
Shaoxing (紹興 shao4 xing1) 1131-1162
Xiao Zong (孝宗 xiao4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Shen|趙慎 zhao4 shen4 1162-1189 Longxing (隆興 long2 xing1) 1163-1164
Qiandao (乾道 qian2 dao4) 1165-1173
Chunxi (淳熙 chun2 xi1) 1174-1189
Guang Zong (光宗 guang1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Dun|趙惇 zhao4 dun1 1189-1194 Shaoxi (紹熙 chun2 xi1) 1190-1194
Ning Zong (寧宗 ning2 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Kuo|趙擴 zhao4 kuo4 1194-1224 Qingyuan (慶元 qing4 yuan2) 1195-1200
Jiakai (嘉泰 jia1 kai4) 1201-1204
Kaixi (開禧 kai1 xi1) 1205-1207
Jiading (嘉定 jia1 ding4) 1208-1224
Li Zong (理宗 li3 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Yun|趙昀 zhao4 yun2 1224-1264 Baoqing (寶慶 bao3 qing4) 1225-1227
Shaoding (紹定 shao4 ding4) 1228-1233
Duanping (端平 duan1 ping2) 1234-1236
Jiaxi (嘉熙 jia1 xi1) 1237-1240
Chunyou (淳祐 chun2 you4) 1241-1252
Baoyou (寶祐 bao3 you4) 1253-1258
Kaiqing (開慶 kai1 qing4) 1259
Jingding (景定 jing3 ding4) 1260-1264
Du Zong (度宗 du4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Qi|趙祺 zhao4 qi2 1264-1274 Xianchun (咸淳 xian2 chun2) 1265-1274
Did not exist Gong Di (恭帝 gong1 di4) Zhao Xian|趙顯 zhao4 xian3 1274-1276 Deyou (德祐 de2 you4) 1275-1276
Duan Zong (端宗 duan1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Shi|趙是 zhao4 shi4 1276-1278 Jingyan (景炎 jing3 yan2) 1276-1278
Did not exist Di (帝 di4) or Wei Wang (衛王 wei4 wang2) Zhao Bing|趙昺 zhao4 bing3 1278-1279 Xiangxing (祥興 xiang2 xing1) 1278-1279


See also: Chinese history, Chinese sovereign, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, Liao dynasty, Jin dynasty, Western Xia, Mongols, Gunpowder, Printing press, Battle of Yamen, Wang An-shih



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