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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

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This is a list of the Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine:

1901 Emil Adolf von Behring
for his serum[?] therapy to treat diphtheria
1902 Ronald Ross
for research on malaria
1903 Niels Ryberg Finsen
for his light treatment of lupus vulgaris[?]
1904 Ivan Petrovich Pavlov
for work on the physiology of the digestive system
1905 Robert Koch
for discovering the cause of tuberculosis
1906 Camillo Golgi, Santiago Ramón y Cajal[?]
for research on the nervous system
1907 Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran
for research into protozoa causing disease
1908 Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, Paul Ehrlich
for study of the immune system
1909 Emil Theodor Kocher
for work on the thyroid gland
1910 Albrecht Kossel
for research in cell biology, especially proteins and nucleic acids
1911 Allvar Gullstrand
for research on the image formation by the lens of the eye
1912 Alexis Carrel
for work on suture of blood vessels and transplantation
1913 Charles Robert Richet[?]
for the discovery of anaphylaxis
1914 Robert Bárány
for research on the vestibular apparatus[?] of the inner ear
1919 Jules Bordet
for discovery of the complement in the immune system
1920 Schack August Steenberg Krogh[?]
for showing that the gas exchange in the lungs is ordinary diffusion
1922 Archibald Vivian Hill, Otto Fritz Meyerhof[?]
for research on muscles, especially their generation of heat and the relationship between oxygen consumption and lactic acid metabolism
1923 Frederick Grant Banting, John James Richard Macleod
for the discovery of insulin
1924 Willem Einthoven[?]
for the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram
1926 Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger[?]
for elucidating Spiroptera carcinoma[?] and artificially inducing cancer in an animal.
1927 Julius Wagner-Jauregg[?]
for healing general paralysis[?] by infection with malaria
1928 Charles Jules Henri Nicolle[?]
for work on typhys[?]
1929 Christiaan Eijkman, Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins[?]
for discovery of various vitamins
1930 Karl Landsteiner
for discovery of human blood types
1931 Otto Heinrich Warburg
for research on cytochromes in cellular respiration
1932 Sir Charles Scott Sherrington[?], Edgar Douglas Adrian[?]
for work on the function of neurons, including the fact that stronger stimuli result in a higher frequency of nerve impulses
1933 Thomas Hunt Morgan
for discovering the role of chromosomes in heredity
1934 George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot[?], William Parry Murphy[?]
for discovering liver therapy for anaemia
1935 Hans Spemann[?]
for the discovery of organizing centers in the early development of organisms
1936 Sir Henry Hallett Dale, Otto Loewi[?]
for work on transmission of nerve impulses via neurotransmitters
1937 Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrapolt
for the description of vitamin C and the discovery that oxygen combines with hydrogen in cellular respiration
1938 Corneille Jean François Heymans[?]
for showing how blood pressure and oxygen content of the blood are measured by the body and transmitted to the brain
1939 Gerhard Domagk[?]
for the discovery of the sulphonamide[?] Prontosil[?], the first drug effective against bacterial infections
1943 Henrik Carl Peter Dam, Edward Adelbert Doisy[?]
for the discovery of vitamin K and its chemical structure
1944 Joseph Erlanger[?], Herbert Spencer Gasser[?]
for the discovery of different types of nerve fibers
1945 Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain[?], Sir Howard Walter Florey
for the discovery of penicillin and its properties in the cure of infectious diseases
1946 Hermann Joseph Muller
for the discovery that mutations can be induced by x-rays
1947 Carl Ferdinand Cori, Gerty Theresa, née Radnitz Cori, Bernardo Alberto Houssay
for the discovery on how glycogen is converted to glucose in the body, and for the effects of hypophysis[?] hormones on sugar metabolism
1948 Paul Hermann Müller[?]
for the discovery of the insecticide DDT
1949 Walter Rudolf Hess[?], Antonio Caetano De Abreu Freire Egas Moniz[?]
Hess for mapping the various functions of the midbrain[?]; Moniz for discovering the therapeutic effect of lobotomy
1950 Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein[?], Philip Showalter Hench
for the discovery of the hormones of the adrenal cortex[?], their structure and function
1951 Max Theiler[?]
for developing a vaccine for yellow fever
1952 Selman Abraham Waksman[?]
for discovering the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis: streptomycin
1953 Hans Adolf Krebs, Fritz Albert Lipmann[?]
Krebs for the discovery of the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration; Lipman for discovery and research on coenzyme A
1954 John Franklin Enders[?], Thomas Huckle Weller[?], Frederick Chapman Robbins[?]
for showing how to cultivate poliomyelitis viruses in the test tube
1955 Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell
for research on enzymes and their actions, especially oxydizing enzymes
1956 André Frédéric Cournand[?], Werner Forssmann[?], Dickinson W. Richards[?]
for showing how to insert a catheter[?] into the heart and studying various heart diseases
1957 Daniel Bovet[?]
for discovering synthetic drugs such as antihistamines[?] that block the action of biological amines
1958 George Wells Beadle[?], Edward Lawrie Tatum[?], Joshua Lederberg[?]
for showing that genes control individual steps in metabolism
1959 Severo Ochoa, Arthur Kornberg[?]
for the synthesis of the nucleic acids RNA and DNA
1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet[?], Peter Brian Medawar
for the discovery that the immune system of the fetus learns how to distinguish between self and non-self
1961 Georg von Békésy[?]
for elucidating the cochlea of the ear
1962 Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson, Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins[?]
for discovering the molecular structure of DNA
1963 Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin[?], Andrew Fielding Huxley
for describing the electric transmission of impulses along nerves
1964 Konrad Bloch, Feodor Lynen[?]
for research on cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism
1965 François Jacob[?], André Lwoff[?], Jacques Monod[?]
for discovering messenger RNA, ribosomes, and the genes controlling the expression of other genes
1966 Peyton Rous[?], Charles Brenton Huggins[?]
Rous for the discovery of viruses that induce tumours; Huggins for the discovery of the treatment of prostate cancer with hormones
1967 Ragnar Granit[?], Haldan Keffer Hartline[?], George Wald[?]
for describing the different types of light-sensitive cells in the eye and how light interacts with them
1968 Robert W. Holley[?], Har Gobind Khorana[?], Marshall W. Nirenberg[?]
for describing the genetic code and how it operates in protein synthesis
1969 Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey[?], Salvador E. Luria[?]
for work on the replication mechanicsm and genetics of viruses
1970 Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler[?], Julius Axelrod[?]
for work on neurotransmitters
1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.[?]
for discovery of the action of hormones, especially epinephrine, via second messengers
1972 Gerald M. Edelman[?], Rodney R. Porter[?]
for descovering the chemical structure of antibodies
1973 Karl von Frisch[?], Konrad Lorenz, Nikolaas Tinbergen
for the study of social animal behavior, especially the explanation of the "dance language" of bees and how young birds become fixated on their mother
1974 Albert Claude[?], Christian de Duve[?], George E. Palade[?]
for describing the structure and function of organelles in biological cells
1975 David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco[?], Howard Martin Temin[?]
for describing how tumor viruses[?] act on the genetical material of the cell
1976 Baruch S. Blumberg[?], D. Carleton Gajdusek[?]
Blumberg for the discovery of a virus causing hepatitis; Gajdusek for describing the disease kuru caused by cannibalism
1977 Roger Guillemin[?], Andrew V. Schally[?], Rosalyn Yalow[?]
Guillemin and Schally for work on peptide hormones produced in the brain; Yalow for creating the Yalow-Berson method[?] to measure minute amounts of peptide hormones using antibodies
1978 Werner Arber[?], Daniel Nathans[?], Hamilton O. Smith[?]
for the discovery of restriction enzymes which are instrumental in molecular biology
1979 Allan M. Cormack[?], Godfrey N. Hounsfield[?]
for developing computer assisted tomography
1980 Baruj Benacerraf[?], Jean Dausset[?], George D. Snell[?]
for discovery of the Major histocompatibility complex genes which encode cell surface molecules important for the immune system's distinction between self and non-self
1981 Roger W. Sperry, David H. Hubel[?], Torsten N. Wiesel[?]
Sperry for research on the cerebral hemispheres[?]; Hubel and Wiesel for work on the processing of visual information in the brain
1982 Sune K. Bergström[?], Bengt I. Samuelsson[?], John R. Vane[?]
for the discovery of prostaglandins
1983 Barbara McClintock
for discovery of mobile genetic elements or transposons in maize
1984 Niels K. Jerne[?], Georges J.F. Köhler[?], César Milstein[?]
for work on the immune system and the production of monoclonal antibodies[?]
1985 Michael S. Brown[?], Joseph L. Goldstein[?]
for describing the regulation of cholesterol metabolism
1986 Stanley Cohen[?], Rita Levi-Montalcini
for discovering growth factors
1987 Susumu Tonegawa[?]
for discovering how the large diversity of antibodies is produced genetically
1988 Sir James W. Black[?], Gertrude B. Elion[?], George H. Hitchings[?]
Black for the development of beta blockers and histamine-2 receptor blocker[?]; Elion and Hitchings for the development of drugs used in the treatment of cancer and the suppression of transplantation rejection; Hitchings for the development of various antibiotics
1989 J. Michael Bishop[?], Harold E. Varmus[?]
for discovering the cellular origins of retroviral oncogenes
1990 Joseph E. Murray[?], E. Donnall Thomas[?]
for work on organ and cell transplantation
1991 Erwin Neher[?], Bert Sakmann[?]
for developing techniques which show that ion channels exist in the cell membrane and which allow to study their properties
1992 Edmond H. Fischer[?], Edwin G. Krebs[?]
for discovering how phosphorylation of proteins is used to regulate biological processes
1993 Richard J. Roberts[?], Phillip A. Sharp[?]
for the discovery that genes in eukaryotes are not contiguous strings but contain introns, and that the splicing of messenger RNA to delete those introns can occur in different ways, yielding different proteins from the same DNA sequence
1994 Alfred G. Gilman[?], Martin Rodbell[?]
for the discovery of G proteins and their role in signal transduction in cells
1995 Edward B. Lewis[?], Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard[?], Eric F. Wieschaus[?]
for the discovery of the genes involved in the developmental program of the fruit fly, the homeobox genes
1996 Peter C. Doherty[?], Rolf M. Zinkernagel[?]
for describing how MHC molecules are used by white blood cells to detect and kill virus-infected cells.
1997 Stanley B. Prusiner
for the discovery of prions, infectious protein particles
1998 Robert F. Furchgott[?], Louis J. Ignarro[?], Ferid Murad[?]
for discovery of the signalling properties of nitric oxide
1999 Günter Blobel
for the discovery that newly synthesized proteins contain "address tags" which direct them to the proper location within the cell
2000 Arvid Carlsson[?], Paul Greengard[?], Eric R Kandel
Carlsson for proving that dopamine is a neurotransmitter in the brain whose depletion leads to symptoms of Alzheimer's disease; Greengard for showing how neurotransmitters act on the cell and can activate a central molecule known as DARPP-32[?]; Kandel for describing how short-term and long-term memory is formed on the molecular level
2001 Leland H. Hartwell[?], R. Timothy Hunt[?], Paul M. Nurse[?]
for the discovery of cyclin[?] and cyclin dependent kinase[?], central molecules in the regulation of the cell cycle
2002 Sydney Brenner[?], H. Robert Horvitz[?], John E. Sulston[?]
for establishing the precise order in which cells in the worm C. elegans divide and die, and for elucidating the process of programmed cell death or apoptosis


Source: http://www.nobel.se/medicine/laureates/index



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