Encyclopedia > Ship-Submarine recycling program

  Article Content

Ship-Submarine recycling program

The Ship/Submarine Recycling Program (SRP) is the process the United States Navy uses to dispose of decommissioned nuclear vessels. SRP takes place only at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS) in Bremerton, Washington, but the preparations can begin elsewhere.

Before SRP can begin, the ship or submarine must have her nuclear fuel removed. Defueling usually coincides with decommissioning. Prior to that event, the vessel referred to as "USS Name," but afterward the "USS" is dropped and it is referred to as "ex-Name." Defueling of submarines is carried out at five ship repair facilities on the West Coast, and the hulks are then towed to PSNS. Reusable equipment is removed at the same time as the fuel.

Spent nuclear fuel is shipped by rail to the Naval Reactor Facility in the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory[?] (INEEL), located 67 kilometers (42 miles) northwest of Idaho Falls, Idaho, where it is stored. The fuel is not reprocessed.

At PSNS the SRP proper begins. A submarine is cut into three or four pieces: the aft section, the reactor compartment, the missile compartment if one exists, and the forward section. Missile compartments are dismantled according to the provisions of the Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty[?]. The ends of the reactor compartment are sealed and shipped by barge and multiple-wheel high-capacity trailers to the Department of Energy's Hanford Nuclear Reservation[?] in Washington state where they are buried. The burial trenches have been evaluated to be secure for at least 600 years before the first pinhole penetration of some lead containment areas of the reactor compartment packages occurs, and several thousand years before leakage becomes possible.

Until 1991, the forward and aft sections of the submarines were rejoined and placed in floating storage. Various proposals for disposal of those hulks were considered, including sinking them at sea, but none were economically practical. All required removal of the numerous polychlorinated biphenyl products (PCBs) on board, which are considered hazardous materials by the Environmental Protection Agency and United States Coast Guard. In order to reduce the costs, the remaining submarine sections are recycled, returning reusable materials to production. In the process of submarine recycling, all hazardous and toxic wastes are identified and removed, reusable equipment is removed and put into inventory. Scrap metals and all other materials are sold to private companies or reused. The overall process is not profitable, but does provide some cost relief. Disposal of submarines by the SRP costs US$25-50 million per submarine.

By the end of 1994, 180 nuclear submarines had been built in the US. Nearly 80 have been decommissioned, and 43 reactor compartments have been cut and are stored at Hanford. The Navy plans to decommission all remaining submarines of the Sturgeon and Benjamin Franklin classes in the first decade of the 21st century, and has already begun to decommission some of the Los Angeles and Ohio boats. Hulks waiting or already processed by the recycling program include:

Cruisers

Ship Name (Hull Number) Start DateCompletion Date

ex-Long Beach (CGN-9)

1 October 2008

not started

ex-Bainbridge (CGN/DLGN-25)[?]

1 October 1997

30 October 1999

ex-Truxtun (CGN/DLGN-35)

1 October 1997

28 April 1999

ex-California (CGN/DLGN-36)[?]

1 October 1998

ongoing

ex-South Carolina (CGN/DLGN-37)[?]

1 October 2006

not started

ex-Virginia (CGN/DLGN-38)

1 October 1999

ongoing

ex-Texas (CGN/DLGN-39)

1 October 1999

ongoing

ex-Mississippi (CGN/DLGN-40)[?]

1 October 2004

not started

Attack Submarines Note that some of these submarines (the George Washington class) were fleet ballistic missile boats for the vast majority of their careers. However, they were briefly converted to SSNs before decommissioning and arrival at PSNS, and so are listed under that designation here.

Ship Name (Hull Number) Start DateCompletion Date

ex-Seawolf (SSN-575)

1 October 1996

30 September 1997

ex-Skate (SSN-578)

14 April 1994

6 March 1995

ex-Swordfish (SSN-579)

11 September 1995

unknown

ex-Sargo (SSN-583)[?]

14 April 1994

5 April 1995

ex-Seadragon (SSN-584)[?]

1 October 1994

18 September 1995

ex-Skipjack (SSN-585)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Triton (SSN-586)[?]

1 October 2005

not started

ex-Halibut (SSN-587)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Scamp (SSN-588)[?]

unknown

1990 (the first)

ex-Sculpin (SSN-590)[?]

1 October 2000

ongoing

ex-Shark (SSN-591)[?]

1 October 1995

28 June 1996

ex-Snook (SSN-592)[?]

1 October 1996

30 June 1997

ex-Permit (SSN-594)[?]

30 September 1991

20 May 1993

ex-Plunger (SSN-595)[?]

5 January 1995

8 March 1996

ex-Barb (SSN-596)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Tullibee (SSN-597)[?]

5 January 1995

1 April 1996

ex-George Washington (SSBN/SSN-598)

unknown

unknown

ex-Patrick Henry (SSBN/SSN-599)

1 October 1996

31 August 1997

ex-Robert E. Lee (SSBN/SSN-601)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Pollack (SSN-603)[?]

9 February 1993

17 February 1995

ex-Haddo (SSN-604)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Jack (SSN-605)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Tinosa (SSN-606)[?]

15 July 1991

26 June 1992

ex-Dace (SSN-607)

unknown

unknown

ex-Ethan Allen (SSBN/SSN-608)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Sam Houston (SSBN/SSN-609)[?]

1 March 1991

3 February 1992

ex-Thomas A. Edison (SSBN/SSN-610)[?]

1 October 1996

1 December 1997

ex-John Marshall (SSBN/SSN-611)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Guardfish (SSN-612)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Flasher (SSN-613)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Greenling (SSN-614)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Gato (SSN-615)

unknown

unknown

ex-Haddock (SSN-621)[?]

1 October 2000

ongoing

ex-Sam Rayburn (SSBN/SSN-635)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Sturgeon (SSN-637)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Whale (SSN-638)[?]

20 October 1995

1 July 1996

ex-Tautog (SSN-639)[?]

1 October 2002

not started

ex-Kamehameha (SSBN/SSN-642)[?]

1 October 2001

ongoing

ex-James K. Polk (SSBN/SSN-645)[?]

16 February 1999

15 July 2000

ex-Grayling (SSN-646)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Pogy (SSN-647)[?]

4 January 1999

12 April 2000

ex-Aspro (SSN-648)[?]

1 October 1999

3 November 2000

ex-Sunfish (SSN-649)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Pargo (SSN-650)[?]

1 October 1994

15 October 1996

ex-Queenfish (SSN-651)[?]

1 May 1992

7 April 1993

ex-Puffer (SSN-652)[?]

20 October 1995

12 July 1996

ex-Ray (SSN-653)[?]

15 March 2002

ongoing

ex-Sand Lance (SSN-660)[?]

1 April 1998

30 August 1999

ex-Lapon (SSN-661)[?]

15 March 2003

not started

ex-Gurnard (SSN-662)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Sea Devil (SSN-664)[?]

1 March 1998

later than May 1999

ex-Guitarro (SSN-665)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Hawkbill (SSN-666)[?]

1 October 1999

1 December 2000, sail preserved as memorial at Arco, Idaho

ex-Bergall (SSN-667)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Spadefish (SSN-668)[?]

1 October 1996

24 October 1997

ex-Seahorse (SSN-669)[?]

1 March 1995

30 September 1996

ex-Finback (SSN-670)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Narwhal (SSN-671)[?]

15 March 2004

not started

ex-Pintado (SSN-672)[?]

1 October 1997

27 October 1998

ex-Flying Fish (SSN-673)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Trepang (SSN-674)[?]

4 January 1999

7 April 2000

ex-Bluefish (SSN-675)[?]

15 March 2002

ongoing

ex-Billfish (SSN-676)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Drum (SSN-677)[?]

1 March 2006

not started

ex-Archerfish (SSN-678)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Silversides (SSN-679)[?]

1 October 2000

ongoing

ex-William H. Bates (SSN-680)[?]

1 October 2002

not started

ex-Batfish (SSN-681)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Tunny (SSN-682)[?]

1 October 1997

27 October 1998

ex-Cavalla (SSN-684)[?]

1 October 1999

16 November 2000

ex-Glenard P. Lipscomb (SSN-685)

unknown

unknown

ex-L. Mendel Rivers (SSN-686)[?]

29 November 2000

ongoing

ex-Richard B. Russell (SSN-687)[?]

1 October 2001

ongoing

ex-Baton Rouge (SSN-689)[?]

13 January 1995

30 September 1997

ex-Omaha (SSN-692)[?]

1 March 2004

not started

ex-Cincinnati (SSN-693)[?]

1 January 2004

not started

ex-Groton (SSN-694)[?]

1 March 2005

not started

ex-Birmingham (SSN-695)[?]

1 March 2006

not started

ex-New York City (SSN-696)

1 March 2006

not started

ex-Indianapolis (SSN-697)[?]

1 March 2006

not started

ex-Bremerton (SSN-698)[?]

1 June 2004

not started

ex-Phoenix (SSN-702)[?]

1 March 2007

not started

ex-Boston (SSN-703)[?]

1 October 2001

ongoing

ex-Baltimore (SSN-704)[?]

1 March 2007

not started

ex-Atlanta (SSN-712)[?]

1 March 2006

not started

Ballistic Missile Submarines

Ship Name (Hull Number) Start DateCompletion Date

ex-Theodore Roosevelt (SSBN-600)[?]

unknown

24 March 1995

ex-Abraham Lincoln (SSBN-602)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Lafayette (SSBN-616)[?]

1 March 1991

25 February 1992

ex-Alexander Hamilton (SSBN-617)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Thomas Jefferson (SSBN-618)[?]

1 October 1996

6 March 1998

ex-Andrew Jackson (SSBN-619)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-John Adams (SSBN-620)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-James Monroe (SSBN-622)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Nathan Hale (SSBN-623)[?]

2 October 1991

5 April 1995

ex-Woodrow Wilson (SSBN-624)[?]

26 September 1997

27 October 1998

ex-Henry Clay (SSBN-625)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-James Madison (SSBN-627)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Tecumseh (SSBN-628)[?]

15 February 1993

1 April 1994

ex-Daniel Boone (SSBN-629)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-John C. Calhoun (SSBN-630)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Ulysses S. Grant (SSBN-631)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Von Steuben (SSBN-632)[?]

1 October 2000

ongoing

ex-Casimir Pulaski (SSBN-633)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Stonewall Jackson (SSBN-634)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Nathanael Greene (SSBN-636)[?]

1 September 1998

20 October 2000

ex-Benjamin Franklin (SSBN-640)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Simon Bolivar (SSBN-641)[?]

1 October 1994

1 December 1995

ex-George Bancroft (SSBN-643)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Lewis and Clark (SSBN-644)[?]

1 October 1995

23 September 1996

ex-George C. Marshall (SSBN-654)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Henry L. Stimson (SSBN-655)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-George Washington Carver (SSBN-656)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Francis Scott Key (SSBN-657)[?]

unknown

unknown

ex-Mariano G. Vallejo (SSBN-658)[?]

1 October 1994

22 December 1995

ex-Will Rogers (SSBN-659)[?]

12 April 1993

12 August 1994

Because the program is underway, this list is almost certainly incomplete. It was last updated 15 May 2002.



All Wikipedia text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

 
  Search Encyclopedia

Search over one million articles, find something about almost anything!
 
 
  
  Featured Article
A.D.

... - Wikipedia <<Up     Contents A.D. The common calendar abbreviation, A.D., has two possible meanings. See Anno Domini for the commo ...