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List of food additives

The numbers below are internationally assigned by the Codex Alimentarius[?] Committee to different food additives for use on labels, to allow each additive to be uniquely identified.

In the European Community, approved food additives are written with a prefix of 'E'. Australia and New Zealand have their own set of approved additives, which are not written with a prefix letter. In the table below, food additives approved for Europe are listed with an E, and those approved for Australia and New Zealand with an A.

NumberApprov. Names Type
100AEturmeric, curcumin[?]colour
101AEriboflavin, vitamin B2colour
102AEtartrazine[?]colour (yellow)
103Aalkanetcolour (red)
104AEQuinoline yellowcolour
107EYellow 2G[?]colour
110AESunset yellow FCF[?]colour
120AEcochineal, carminescolour (red)
121Citrus red 2[?]colour
122AEazorubine[?], carmoisine[?]colour
123AEamaranthcolour (red)
124AEBrilliant Scarlet 4R[?], Ponceau 4R[?]colour
125Ponceau SX[?]colour
127AEerythrosine[?]colour
128ERed 2G[?]colour
129AEAllura red AC[?]colour
131EPatent blue V[?]colour
132AEindigo carmine, indigotinecolour
133AEBrilliant blue FCF[?]colour
140AEchlorophyllscolour
141AEcopper chlorophyllscolour
142EGreen S[?]colour
143EFast green FCF[?]colour
150aAEcaramel I - plaincolour
150bAEcaramel II - caustic[?] sulphite processcolour
150cAEcaramel III - ammonia processcolour
150dAEcaramel IV - ammonia sulphite[?] processcolour
151AEBrilliant Black BN[?]colour
153AEvegetable carbon[?], carbon black[?]colour
154EBrown FK[?]colour
155AEChocolate Brown HT[?]colour
160aAEcarotenescolour
160bAEannatto[?], bixin[?], norbixin[?]colour
160cEpaprika extract, capsanthin[?]colour
160dElycopenecolour
160eAEbeta-apo-8'-carotenal[?]colour
160fAEbeta-apo-8'-carotenic acid ester[?]colour
161aAflavoxanthin[?]colour
161bAElutein[?]colour
161cAkryptoxanthin[?]colour
161dArubixanthin[?]colour
161eAvioloxanthin[?]colour
161fArhodoxanthin[?]colour
161gAEcanthaxanthin[?]colour
162AEbeet red[?]colour
163Eanthocyanins[?]colour
170Ecalcium carbonatescolour, anticaking agent, stabiliser
171Etitanium dioxidecolour
172Eiron oxides[?] and hydroxidescolour
173Ealuminiumcolour
174Esilvercolour
175Egoldcolour
180Elitholrubine[?], latolrubine[?]colour
181Etanninscolour, emulsifier, stabiliser, thickener
182orchil[?]colour
200Esorbic acid[?]preservative
201sodium sorbate[?]preservative
202Epotassium sorbate[?]preservative
203Ecalcium sorbate[?]preservative
209heptyl p-hydroxybenzoate[?]preservative
210Ebenzoic acidpreservative
211AEsodium benzoate[?]preservative
212AEpotassium benzoate[?]preservative
213AEcalcium benzoate[?]preservative
214Eethyl p-hydroxybenzoate[?]preservative
215Esodium ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate[?]preservative
216AEpropylparaben[?]preservative
217Epropyl sodium ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate[?]preservative
218AEmethylparaben[?]preservative
219Esodium methyl p-hydroxybenzoate[?]preservative
220AEsulphur dioxidepreservative, antioxidant
221AEsodium sulphite[?]preservative, antioxidant
222AEsodium hydrogen sulphite[?]preservative, antioxidant
223AEsodium metabisulphite[?]preservative, antioxidant, bleaching agent
224AEpotassium metabisulphite[?]preservative, antioxidant
225Apotassium sulphite[?]preservative, antioxidant
226Ecalcium sulphite[?]preservative, antioxidant
227Ecalcium bisulphite[?]preservative, antioxidant
228AEpotassium bisulphite[?]preservative, antioxidant
230Ebiphenyl[?], diphenyl[?]preservative
231Eorthophenyl phenol[?], 2-hydroxybiphenyl[?]preservative
232Esodium orthophenyl phenol[?]preservative
233thiabendazole[?]preservative
234AEnisin[?]preservative
235AEpimaricin[?], natamycin[?]preservative
236formic acidpreservative
237sodium formate[?]preservative
238calcium formate[?]preservative
239Ehexamethylene tetramine[?], hexamine[?]preservative
240formaldehydepreservative
241gum guaicum[?]preservative
242AEdimethyl dicarbonate[?]preservative
249AEpotassium nitrite[?]preservative, colour fixative
250AEsodium nitrite[?]preservative, colour fixative
251AEsodium nitratepreservative, colour fixative
252Apotassium nitratepreservative, colour fixative
260AEglacial acetic acidpreservative, acidity regulator
261AEpotassium acetates[?]preservative, acidity regulator
262AEsodium acetates[?]preservative, acidity regulator
263AEcalcium acetate[?]preservative, acidity regulator
264Aammmonium acetate[?]preservative, acidity regulator
265dehydroacetic acid[?]preservative
266sodium dehydroacetate[?]preservative
270AElactic acidacidity regulator
280AEpropionic acid[?]preservative
281AEsodium propionate[?]preservative
282AEcalcium propionate[?]preservative
283AEpotassium propionate[?]preservative
284Eboric acidpreservative
285Esodium tetraborate[?], boraxpreservative
290AEcarbon dioxidepropellant
296AEmalic acidacidity regulator
297AEfumaric acid[?]acidity regulator
300AEascorbic acidantioxidant (water soluble)
301AEsodium ascorbateantioxidant (water soluble)
302AEcalcium ascorbateantioxidant (water soluble)
303Apotassium ascorbateantioxidant (water soluble)
304AEascorbyl palmitate, ascorbyl stearate antioxidant (fat soluble)
306AEtocopherol concentrateantioxidant
307AEdl-alpha-tocopherol[?]antioxidant
308AEgamma-tocopherol[?]antioxidant
309AEdelta-tocopherol[?]antioxidant
310AEpropyl gallate[?]antioxidant
311AEoctyl gallate[?]antioxidant
312AEdodecyl gallate[?]antioxidant
315AEerythorbic acid[?]antioxidant
316AEsodium erythorbate[?]antioxidant
319Atert-butylhydroquinone[?]antioxidant
320AEbutylated hydroxyanisole[?], BHAantioxidant (fat soluble)
321AEbutylated hydroxytoluene[?], BHTantioxidant (fat soluble)
322AElecithins[?]antioxidant, emulsifier
325AEsodium lactate[?]food acid
326AEpotassium lactate[?]food acid
327AEcalcium lactate[?]food acid
328Aammonium lactate[?]food acid
329Amagnesium lactate[?]food acid
330AEcitric acidfood acid
331AEsodium citrates[?]food acid
332AEpotassium citrates[?]food acid
333AEcalcium citrate[?]food acid
334AEtartaric acidfood acid
335AEsodium tartrates[?]food acid
336AEpotassium tartrates[?]food acid
337AEpotassium sodium tartrate[?]food acid
338AEphosphoric acidfood acid
339AEsodium phosphates[?]mineral salt
340AEpotassium phosphates[?]mineral salt
341AEcalcium phosphatesmineral salt
342Aammonium phosphates[?]mineral salt
343AEmagnesium phosphates[?]mineral salt
349Aammonium malate[?]food acid
350AEsodium malates[?]food acid
351AEpotassium malate[?]food acid
352AEcalcium malates[?]food acid
353AEmetatartaric acid[?]food acid
354AEcalcium tartrate[?]food acid
355AEadipic acid[?]food acid
356Esodium adipate[?]food acid
357AEpotassium adipate[?]food acid
363Esuccinic acidfood acid
365Asodium fumarate[?]food acid
366Apotassium fumarate[?]food acid
367Acalcium fumarate[?]food acid
368Aammonium fumarate[?]food acid
3701,4-heptonolactone[?]food acid
375Aniacin, (vitamin B3)colour retention agent
380AEtriammonium citrate[?]food acid
381Aferric ammonium citrate[?]food acid
385AEcalcium disodium EDTA[?]preservative
400AEalginic acid[?]thickener, vegetable gum
401AEsodium alginatethickener, vegetable gum
402AEpotassium alginate[?]thickener, vegetable gum
403AEammonium alginate[?]thickener, vegetable gum
404AEcalcium alginate[?]thickener, vegetable gum
405AEpropylene gloycol alginate[?]thickener, vegetable gum
406AEagarthickener, vegetable gum
407AEcarrageenanthickener, vegetable gum
407aAEprocessed eucheuma[?] seaweedthickener, vegetable gum
409Aarabinogalactan[?]thickener, vegetable gum
410AElocust bean gum[?]thickener, vegetable gum
412AEguar gumthickener, vegetable gum
413AEtragacanth[?]thickener, vegetable gum
414AEacacia, gum arabic[?]thickener, vegetable gum
415AExanthan gum[?]thickener, vegetable gum
416AEkaraya gum[?]thickener, vegetable gum
417Etara gum[?]thickener, vegetable gum
418AEgellan gum[?]thickener, vegetable gum
420AEsorbitolhumectant
421AEmannitol[?]humectant
422AEglycerinhumectant
425Ekonjac[?]thickener, vegetable gum
431Epolyoxyethylene (40) stearate[?]emulsifier
432Epolysorbate 20[?]emulsifier
433AEpolysorbate 80[?]emulsifier
434Epolysorbate 40[?]emulsifier
435AEpolysorbate 60[?]emulsifier
436AEpolysorbate 65[?]emulsifier
440AEpectinvegetable gum
441AEgelatine (not classified as an additive)gelling agent[?]
442AEammonium phosphatides[?]emulsifier
444AEsucrose acetate isobutyrate[?]emulsifier, stabiliser
445Eglycerol esters of wood rosin[?]emulsifier
450AEdiphosphates[?]mineral salt
451AEtriphosphates[?]mineral salt
452AEpolyphosphatesmineral salt
459Ebeta-cyclodextrine[?]-
460AEpowdered celluloseanti-caking agent
461AEmethylcellulose[?]thickener, vegetable gum
463Ehydroxypropyl cellulose[?]thickener, vegetable gum
464AEhydroxypropyl methylcellulose[?]thickener, vegetable gum
465AEmethyl ethyl cellulose[?]thickener, vegetable gum
466AEsodium carboxymethylcellulose[?]thickener, vegetable gum
470Amagnesium stearate[?]emulsifier, stabiliser
470Esalts of fatty acidsemulsifier, stabiliser
471AEmono- and diglycerides of fatty acidsemulsifier
472aAEacetic acid esters of 471emulsifier
472bAElactic acid esters of 471emulsifier
472cAEcitric acid esters of 471emulsifier
472dAEtartaric acid esters of 471emulsifier
472eAEdiacetyltartaric acid esters of 471emulsifier
472fEmixed acetic and tartaric acid esters of 471emulsifier
473AEsucrose esters of fatty acids[?]emulsifier
474Esucroglycerides[?]emulsifier
475AEpolyglycerol esters of fatty acids[?]emulsifier
476AEpolyglycerol polyricinoleate[?]emulsifier
477AEpropylene glycol esters of fatty acids[?]emulsifier
479bEthermally oxidised soya bean oil[?]emulsifier
480Adioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate[?]emulsifier
481AEsodium stearoyl lactylate[?]emulsifier
482AEcalcium stearoyl lactylate[?]emulsifier
483Estearyl tartarate[?]emulsifier
491AEsorbitan monostearate[?]emulsifier
492AEsorbitan tristearate[?]emulsifier
493sorbitan monolaurate[?]emulsifier
494Esorbitan monooleate[?]emulsifier
495Esorbitan monopalmitate[?]emulsifier
500AEsodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonatemineral salt
501AEpotassium carbonate, potassium bicarbonatemineral salt
503AEammonium carbonate[?], ammonium bicarbonate[?]mineral salt
504AEmagnesium carbonate[?]anti-caking agent, mineral salt
507AEhydrochloric acidacidity regulator
508AEpotassium chloridemineral salt
509AEcalcium chloride[?]mineral salt
510Aammonium chloride[?]mineral salt
511AEmagnesium chloride[?]mineral salt
512AEstannous chloride[?]colour retention agent
513Esulphuric acidacidity regulator
514AEsodium sulphate[?]mineral salt
515AEpotassium sulphate[?]mineral salt
516AEcalcium sulphateflour treatment agent, mineral salt
517Eammonium sulphate[?]mineral salt
518Amagneisum sulphate[?]mineral salt
519Acupric sulphate[?]mineral salt
520Ealuminium sulphate[?]mineral salt
521Ealuminium sodium sulphate[?]mineral salt
522Ealuminium potassium sulphate[?]mineral salt
523Ealuminium ammonium sulphate[?]mineral salt
524Esodium hydroxidemineral salt
525Epotassium hydroxidemineral salt
526AEcalcium hydroxide[?]mineral salt
527Eammonium hydroxide[?]mineral salt
528Emagnesium hydroxidemineral salt
529AEcalcium oxidemineral salt
530Emagnesium oxideanti-caking agent
535AEsodium ferrocyanide[?]anti-caking agent
536AEpotassium ferrocyanideanti-caking agent
538Ecalcium ferrocyanide[?]anti-caking agent
540dicalcium diphosphate[?]anti-caking agent
541AEsodium aluminium phosphate[?]acidity regulator, emulsifier
542Abone phosphate[?]anti-caking agent
544calcium polyphosphates[?]anti-caking agent
545ammonium polyphosphates[?]anti-caking agent
551AEsilicon dioxideanti-caking agent
552AEcalcium silicate[?]anti-caking agent
553aEmagnesium silicate[?]anti-caking agent
553bAEtalcanti-caking agent
554AEsodium aluminium silicate[?]anti-caking agent
555Epotassium aluminium silicate[?]anti-caking agent
556AEcalcium aluminium silicate[?]anti-caking agent
558AEbentoniteanti-caking agent
559AEkaolin, aluminium silicate[?]anti-caking agent
570AEstearic acid[?]anti-caking agent
575AEglucono-delta-lactone[?]acidity regulator
576sodium gluconate[?]?
577AEpotassium gluconate[?]stabiliser
578AEcalcium gluconate[?]acidity regulator
579AEferrous gluconate[?]colour retention agent
585Eferrous lactate[?]-
620AEglutamic acidflavour enhancer
621AEmonosodium glutamate, MSGflavour enhancer
622AEmonopotassium glutamate[?]flavour enhancer
623AEcalcium diglutamate[?]flavour enhancer
624AEmonoammonium glutamate[?]flavour enhancer
625AEmagnesium diglutamate[?]flavour enhancer
626guanylic acid[?]flavour enhancer
627AEdisodium guanylate[?]flavour enhancer
628Edipotassium guanylate[?]flavour enhancer
629Ecalcium guanylate[?]flavour enhancer
630Einosinic acid[?]flavour enhancer
631AEdisodium inosinateflavour enhancer
632Edipotassium inosinate[?]flavour enhancer
633Ecalcium inosinate[?]flavour enhancer
634Ecalcium 5'-ribonucleotides[?]flavour enhancer
635AEdisodium 5'-ribonucleotides[?]flavour enhancer
636Amaltol[?]flavour enhancer
637Aethyl maltol[?]flavour enhancer
640AEglycineflavour enhancer
641Aleucineflavour enhancer
650Ezinc acetate[?]flavour enhancer
900AEdimethylpolysiloxane[?]emulsifier, anti-caking agent
901AEbeeswaxglazing agent
902Ecandelilla wax[?]glazing agent
903AEcarnauba wax[?]glazing agent
904AEshellacglazing agent
905AEparaffinsglazing agent
907refined microcrystalline wax[?]glazing agent
912Emontanic acid esters[?]humectant
914AEoxidised polyethylene wax[?]humectant
920AEL-cysteine[?]flour treatment agent
924potassium bromate[?]flour treatment agent
925Achlorineflour treatment agent
926Achlorine dioxide[?]flour treatment agent
927bEcarbamide[?]flour treatment agent
928Abenzoyl peroxide[?]flour treatment agent
938Eargonpropellant
939Eheliumpropellant
941AEnitrogenpropellant
942AEnitrous oxidepropellant
943aEbutanepropellant
943bEisobutanepropellant
950AEacesulphame potassium[?]artificial sweetener
951AEaspartameartificial sweetener
952AEcyclamic acid[?], cyclamatesartificial sweetener
953AEisomalt[?]humectant
954AEsaccharin[?]artificial sweetener
955Asucraloseartificial sweetener
956Aalitame[?]artificial sweetener
957AEthaumatin[?]flavour enhancer, artificial sweetener
959Eneohesperidine DC[?]?
965AEmaltitol[?]humectant, stabiliser
966AElactitol[?]humectant
967AExylitolhumectant, stabiliser
999Equillaia[?] extracthumectant
1001Acholine salts and estersemulsifier
1100Aamylasesflour treatment agent
1102Aglucose oxidase[?]antioxidant
1103Einvertase[?]?
1104Alipases[?]flavour enhancer
1105AElysozyme[?]preservative
1200AEpolydextrose[?]humectant
1201AEpolyvinylpyrrolidone[?]mineral salt
1202AEpolyvinylpolypyrrolidone[?]colour stabiliser
1400Adextrin roasted starch[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1401Aacid treated starch[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1402Aalkaline treated starch[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1403Ableached starch[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1404AEoxidised starch[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1405Aenzyme treated starch[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1410AEmonostarch phosphate[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1412AEdistarch phosphate[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1413AEphosphated distarch phosphate[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1414AEacetylated distarch phosphate[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1420AEacetylated starch[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1422AEacetylated distarch adipate[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1440AEhydroxypropyl starch[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1442AEhydroxypropyl distarch phosphate[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1450AEstarch sodium octenylsuccinate[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1451Eacetylated oxidised starch[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1505AEtriethyl citrate[?]thickener, vegetable gum
1510ethanol (not classified as an additive)alcohol
1518AEtriacetin[?]humectant
1520AEpropylene glycolhumectant
1521Apolyethylene glycol 8000[?]antifoaming agent

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