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Bismuth

General
Name, Symbol, NumberBismuth, Bi, 83
Chemical series True metals[?]
Group, Period, Block15 (VA), 6 , p
Density, Hardness 9780 kg/m3, 2.25
Appearance lustrous
reddish white
Atomic Properties
Atomic weight 208.98038 amu
Atomic radius (calc.) 160 (143) pm
Covalent radius 146 pm
van der Waals radius no data
Electron configuration [Xe]4f14 5d10 6s2 6p3
e- 's per energy level2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 5
Oxidation states (Oxide) 3, 5 (mildly acidic)
Crystal structure Rhombohedral
Physical Properties
State of matter Solid
Melting point 544.4 K (520.3 °F)
Boiling point 1837 K (2847 °F)
Molar volume 21.31 ×10-3 m3/mol
Heat of vaporization 104.8 kJ/mol
Heat of fusion 11.3 kJ/mol
Vapor pressure 0.000627 Pa at 544 K
Speed of sound 1790 m/s at 293.15 K
Miscellaneous
Electronegativity 2.02 (Pauling scale)
Specific heat capacity 122 J/(kg×K)
Electrical conductivity 0.867 106/m ohm
Thermal conductivity 07.87 W/(m×K)
1st ionization potential 703 kJ/mol
2nd ionization potential 1610 kJ/mol
3rd ionization potential 2466 kJ/mol
4th ionization potential 4370 kJ/mol
5th ionization potential 5400 kJ/mol
6th ionization potential 8520 kJ/mol
Most Stable Isotopes
isoNAhalf-life DMDE MeVDP
207Bi{syn.}31.55 yEpsilon2.399207Pb
208Bi{syn.}3,368,000 yEpsilon2.880208Pb
209Bi100%(1.9±0.2) ×1019yAlpha 205 Tl
SI units & STP are used except where noted.
Bismuth is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Bi and atomic number 83. This is heavy, brittle, white crystalline trivalent true metal[?] that has a pink tinge and chemically resembles arsenic and antimony. Most diamagnetic of all metals, bismuth has the lowest thermal conductivity of all the elements except mercury. Lead-free bismuth compounds are used in cosmetics and in medical procedures.

Table of contents

Notable Characteristics

Before 2003, Bismuth was thought to be the heavest stable element, however research at the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale[?] in Orsay[?], France calculated the alpha emission half-life of the metal to be (1.9 +/- 0.2) × 1019 years. It is is a brittle metal with a pinkish hue with an iridescent tarnish. Among the heavy metals, it is the heaviest and the only non-toxic. No other metal is more diamagnetic than bismuth, except mercury. This metal, which occurs in its native form, has a high electrical resistance and also has the highest Hall effect of any metal (that is, it has the greatest increase in electrical resistance when it is placed in a magnetic field). When heated in air bismuth burns with a blue flame and its oxide[?] forms yellow fumes.

Applications

Bismuth oxychloride[?] is extensively used in cosmetics and bismuth subnitrate[?] and subcarbonate[?] are used in medicine. Other uses; "Bismanol[?]" (MnBi) is a strong permanent magnet.

  • Bismuth alloys have low-melting temperature and are widely used for fire detection and suppression system safety devices.
  • Bismuth is used in producing malleable irons and is finding use as a catalyst for making acrylic fibers.
  • Also used as a thermocouple material.
  • A carrier for U-235 or U233 fuel in nuclear reactors.
  • Bismuth has also been used in solders.

In the early 1990s, research began on the evaluation of bismuth as a nontoxic replacement for lead in such uses as ceramic glazes, fishing sinkers, food processing equipment, free-machining brasses for plumbing applications, lubricating greases, and shot for waterfowl hunting. History Bismuth (German Weisse Masse meaning "white mass"; later Wisuth and Bisemutum) was confused in early times with tin and lead due to its resemblance to those elements. In 1753 Claude Geoffroy Junine[?] showed that this metal is distinct from lead. Occurrence Bismuthinite[?] and bismite[?] are the most important ores of bismuth. Canada, Bolivia, Japan, Mexico, and Peru are major producers. Bismuth produced in the United States is obtained as a by-product of copper, gold, lead, silver, tin and especially lead ore processing. The average price for bismuth in 2000 was US$ 3.50 per pound.

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