Encyclopedia > Antimony

  Article Content


Name, Symbol, NumberAntimony, Sb, 51
Series metalloids
Group, Period, Block15 (VA), 5 , p
Density, Hardness 6697 kg/m3, 3
Appearance silvery lustrous grey
Atomic Properties
Atomic weight 121.760 amu
Atomic radius (calc.) 145 (133) pm
Covalent radius 138 pm
van der Waals radius no data
Electron configuration [Kr]4d10 5s2 5p3
e- 's per energy level2, 8, 18, 18, 5
Oxidation states (Oxide) ±1 (mildly acidic)
Crystal structure Rhombohedral
Physical Properties
State of matter Solid
Melting point 903.78 K (1167.13 °F)
Boiling point 1860 K (2889 °F)
Molar volume 18.19 ×10-3 m3/mol
Heat of vaporization 77.14 kJ/mol
Heat of fusion 19.87 kJ/mol
Vapor pressure 2.49 E-9 Pa @ 6304 K
Speed of sound __ m/s at __ K
Electronegativity 2.05 (Pauling scale)
Specific heat capacity 210 J/(kg*K)
Electrical conductivity 2.88 106/m ohm
Thermal conductivity 24.3 W/(m*K)
1st ionization potential 834 kJ/mol
2nd ionization potential 1594.9 kJ/mol
3rd ionization potential 2440 kJ/mol
4th ionization potential 4260 kJ/mol
5th ionization potential 5400 kJ/mol
6th ionization potential 10400 kJ/mol
Most Stable Isotopes
isoNAhalf-life DMDE MeVDP
121Sb57.36%Sb is stable with 70 neutrons
123Sb42.64%Sb is stable with 72 neutrons
125Sb{syn.}2.7582 yBeta-0.767125Te
SI units & STP are used except where noted.
Antimony is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Sb and atomic number 51. A metalloid, antimony has four allotropic forms. The stable form of antimony is a blue-white metal. Yellow and black antimony are unstable non-metals. Used in flame-proofing, paints, ceramics, enamels, a wide variety of alloys, and rubber.

Table of contents

Notable Characteristics Antimony in its elemental form is a silvery white, brittle, fusible, crystalline solid that exhibits poor electrical and heat conductivity properties and vaporizes at a low temperatures. A metalloid, antimony, resembles metal in its appearance and physical properties, but does not chemically react as a metal. It is also attacked by oxidizing acids and halogens.

Estimates of the abundance of antimony in the Earth's crust range from 0.2 to 0.5 ppm. Antimony is chalcophile[?], occurring with sulfur and the heavy metals lead, copper, and silver. Applications Antimony is increasingly being used in the semiconductor industry in the production of diodes, infrared detectors, and Hall-effect devices. As an alloy, this semi-metal greatly increases lead's hardness and mechanical strength. The most important use of antimony metal is as a hardener in lead for storage batteries. Other uses;

  • Batteries,
  • antifriction alloys,
  • type metal,
  • small arms and tracer bullets,
  • cable sheathing

Antimony compounds in the form of; oxides, sulfides[?], sodium antimonate, and antimony trichloride are used in the making of flame-proofing compounds, ceramic enamels, glass, paints, and pottery. Antimony trioxide is the most important of the antimony compounds and is primarily used in flame-retardant formulations. These flame-retardant applications include such markets as children's clothing, toys, aircraft and automobile seat covers. History Antimony (Greek anti plus monos meaning "a metal not found alone") was recognized in antiquity in various compounds and was later known as a metal at the beginning of the 17th century and possibly earlier. This element was first scientifically reported by Tholden[?] in 1450. The natural sulfide of antimony, stibnite[?], was known and used in Biblical times as medicine and as a cosmetic. Thre relationship between antimony's modern name and its symbol is complex; the Coptic name for the cosmetic powder antimony sulfide was borrowed by the Greeks, which was in turn borrowed by Latin, resulting in stibium. The chemical pioneer Jacob Berzelius used an abbreviation of this name for antimony in his writings, and his usage remained. Sources Even though this element is not abundant, it is found in over 100 mineral species. Antimony is sometimes found native, but more frequently it is found in the sulfide stibnite[?] (Sb2S3) which is the predominant ore mineral. Commercial forms of antimony are generally ingots, broken pieces, granules, and cast cake. Other forms are powder, shot, and single crystals. Precautions Antimony and many of its compounds are toxic.

External Links

All Wikipedia text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

  Search Encyclopedia

Search over one million articles, find something about almost anything!
  Featured Article
Gillette, Wyoming

... up of individuals and 4.9% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.62 and the average family size is 3.12. In the city ...