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# Tungsten

General
Name, Symbol, NumberTungsten, W, 74
Chemical series Transition metals
Group, Period, Block6 (VIB), 6 , d
Density, Hardness 19250 kg/m3, 7.5
Appearance grayish white, lustrous
Atomic Properties
Atomic weight 183.84 amu
van der Waals radius no data
Electron configuration [Xe]4f14 5d4 6s2
e- 's per energy level2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2
Oxidation states (Oxide) 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 (mildly acidic)
Crystal structure Cubic body centered
Physical Properties
State of matter solid
Melting point 3695 K (6192 °F)
Boiling point 5828 K (10031 °F)
Molar volume 9.47 ×10-3 m3/mol
Heat of vaporization 824 kJ/mol
Heat of fusion 35.4 kJ/mol
Vapor pressure 4.27 Pa at 3680 K
Speed of sound 5174 m/s at 293.15 K
Miscellaneous
Electronegativity 2.36 (Pauling scale)
Specific heat capacity 130 J/(kg*K)
Electrical conductivity 18.9 106/m ohm
Thermal conductivity 174 W/(m*K)
1st ionization potential 770 kJ/mol
2nd ionization potential 1700 kJ/mol
Most Stable Isotopes
isoNAhalf-life DMDE MeVDP
180W0.13%W is stable with 106 neutrons
182W26.3%W is stable with 108 neutrons
183W14.3%>1.1 E17 yno datano datano data
184W30.67%>3 E17 yαno data180Hf
186W28.6%W is stable with 112 neutrons
SI units & STP are used except where noted.
Tungsten (formerly wolfram) is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol W and atomic number 74. A very hard, heavy, steel-gray to white transition metal, tungsten is found in several ores including wolframite[?] and scheelite[?] and is remarkable for its robust physical properties. The pure form is used mainly in electrical applications but its many compounds and alloys are widely used in many applications (most notably in light bulb filaments and in space-age superalloys).

Notable Characteristics Pure tungsten is a steel-gray to tin-white hard metal. Tungsten can be cut with a hacksaw when it is very pure (it is brittle and hard to work when impure) and is otherwise worked by forging, drawning, or extruding. This element has the highest melting point (3422 °C), lowest vapor pressure and the highest tensile strength at temperatures above 1650 °C of all metals. Its corrosion resistance is excellent and it can only be attacked slightly by most mineral acids. Common oxidation states of tungsten are +2, +3, +4, +5, +6, but it exhibits all oxidation states from -2 to 6. Tungsten metal forms a protective oxide when exposed to air. When alloyed in small quantities with steel, it greatly increases its hardness. Applications Tungsten is a metal with a wide range of uses, the largest of which is as tungsten carbide (W2C, WC) in cemented carbides. Cemented carbides (also called hardmetals) are wear-resistant materials used by the metalworking, mining, and petroleum and construction industries. Tungsten is widely used in light bulb and television tube filaments, as well as electrodes, because it can be drawn into very thin metal wires that have have a high melting point. Other uses;

• A high melting point also makes tungsten suitable for space-oriented and high temperature uses which include electrical, heating, and welding applications.
• Hardness and density properties make this metal ideal for making heavy metal alloys that are used in armaments, heat sinks[?], and high-density applications, such as weights and counterweights.
• High speed tool steels (Hastelloy ®, Stellite ®) are often alloyed with tungsten, with tungsten steels containing as much as 18% tungsten.
• Superalloys containing this metal are used in turbine blades, tool steels, and wear-resistant alloy parts and coatings.
• Composites are used as a substitute for lead in bullets and shot.
• Tungsten chemical compounds are used in catalysts, inorganic pigments, and tungsten disulfide high-temperature lubricants which is stable to 500 °C.
• Since this element's thermal expansion is similar to borosilicate glass, it is used for making glass-to-metal seals.

Miscellaneous: Oxides are used in ceramic glazes and calcium/magnesium tungstates are used widely in fluorescent lighting. The metal is also used in X-ray targets, heating elements for electrical furnaces. Salts that contain tungsten are used in the chemical and tanning industries. Tungsten 'bronzes' (so called due to the colour of the tungsten oxides) along with other compounds are used in paints. History Tungsten (Swedish tung sten meaning "heavy stone") was first hypothesized to exist by Peter Woulfe[?] in 1779 who examined wolframite[?] (which was later named for Woulfe) and concluded that it must contain a new substance. In 1781 Carl Wilhelm Scheele ascertained that a new acid could be made from tungstenite. Scheele and Berman suggested that it could be possible to obtain a new metal by reducing tungstic acid. José[?] and Fausto Elhuyar[?] found an acid in wolframite that was identical to the tungstic acid in 1783. In Spain later that year the brothers succeeded in isolating tungsten through reduction of this acid with charcoal. They are credited for the discovery of the element. Biological Role Enzymes called oxidoreductases[?] use tungsten in a way that is similar to molybdenum by using it in a tungsten-pterin[?] complex. Occurrence Tungsten is found in the minerals wolframite (iron-manganese tungstate, FeWO4/MnWO4) , scheelite[?] (calcium tungstate, CaWO4), ferberite[?] and huebnerite[?]. Important deposits of these minerals are in Bolivia, California, China, Colorado, Portugal, Russia, and South Korea (with China producing about 75% of the world's supply). The metal is commercially produced by reducing tungsten oxide with hydrogen or carbon. Isotopes Naturally occurring tungsten is made of three stable isotopes and two radioisotopes that have such absurdly long half lifes that for most practical purposes are considered stable. In addition to this, there are twenty-one unstable isotopes with W-181 being the longest lived (t½ = 121.2 days).

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