China or Zhongguo (中國) is an ancient cultural and geographic entity in continental East Asia with some offshore islands which is currently divided between the People's Republic of China (governing Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau) and the Republic of China (governing Taiwan and several outlying Fujianese islands).
The term "China" can narrowly mean China proper, or, more usually and inclusively, China proper and Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, and Xinjiang. In the western news media, "China" is commonly used synonymously with the People's Republic of China or mainland China, while "Taiwan" is used to refer to the Republic of China.
The historical capitals of China were mostly in the eastern part, and the four most commonly designated capitals are Nanjing, Beijing, Xi'an, and Luoyang. Official languages once included Chinese, Mongol, and Manchu.
The English word China and prefix Sino- come from the Chinese word 秦 (pinyin qín) of Qin Dynasty. It passed through many languages along the Silk Road before it finally reached Europe. (See also: China in world languages)
China was one of the earliest centers of human civilization, and became a large united country with an advanced culture at a very early stage, outpacing the rest of the world in areas like art and science.
China consisted of several hundred small kingdoms since around 1000 BC. All of which were unified under one emperor since the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC. Over the course of centuries, China underwent periods of unity and disunity, order and disorder.
In the 18th century, China achieved a decisive technological advantage over the peoples of Central Asia, while simultaneously falling behind Europe technologically. This set the stage for the 19th century, in which China adopted a defensive posture against European imperialism while simultaneously extending control into Central Asia.
In the early 20th century, the institution of the Emperor of China disappeared, and China entered a period of disunion started by the Chinese Civil War. There are now two nations which lay formal claim to the title of "China": the People's Republic of China (also called "Mainland China") and the pre-revolution government of the Republic of China which administers Taiwan and several small islands.
After the Qin Empire unification, China experienced about 13 more dynasties, many of which includes extensive system of kingdoms, principalities, dukedoms, earldoms, and marquisates. However, ultimately, the emperor had the centralized authority. The emperor also consulted civil and martial ministers, especially the prime minister. Sometimes political power, however, fell into the hands of the officials, eunuchs, or relatives.
Political relations with dependencies (tributary kingdoms) were maintained by international marriages, military aids, and gifts. (see section "Geography, Political" below for examples).
Areas currenly controlled by the PRC and ROC
Originally in the Zhou Dynasty, China was the region around the Yellow River. The territory since then had been expanding from the West outward in all directions, and was largest during the Tang, Yuan, and Qing Dynasties. During the strongest periods in Yuan, the Chinese Empire includes most parts of southern Russia in and Central Asia.
Some areas did not fully join the empire, and instead became tributary kingdoms or khanates. Dependencies to China at various times included:
Top-level political divisions of China have altered as the administration changed. Top leverls inclduded circuits and provinces. Below that, there have been prefectures, subprefectures, departments, commandries, districts, and townships. Recent divisions include counties and cities.
Geography of China
China contains a large variety in landscapes, with mostly plateaux and mountains in the west, and lower lands on the east. As a result, principal rivers flow from west to east (Chang Jiang, the Huang He (of central-east), the Amur (of northeast), etc), sometimes to south (Xi Jiang[?], Mekong River, Brahmaputra, etc). All rivers empty into the Pacific.
In the east, along the shores of the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea are found extensive and densely populated alluvial plains; the shore of the South China Sea is more mountainous and southern China is dominated by hill country and lower mountain ranges.
To the west, the north has a great alluvial plain, and the south has a vast calcareous tableland traversed by hill ranges of moderate elevation, with the Himalaya, containing highest point Mount Everest. The southwest also has high plateaus feature among the more arid landscape of deserts such as the Takla-Makan[?] and the Gobi Desert, which has been expanding. Due to a prolonged drought and perhaps poor agricultural practices dust storms have become usual in the spring in China.
The climate of China varies greatly. Southern China lie within the tropics. The northern zone (in which lies Beijing), by contrast, has a climate with winters of Arctic severity. The central zone (in which Shanghai is situated) has a generally temperate climate.
The Palaeozoic formations of China, excepting only the upper part of the Carboniferous system, are marine, while the Mesozoic and Tertiary deposits are estuarine and freshwater or else of terrestrial origin. Groups of volcanic cones occur in the Great Plain of north China. In the Liaodong[?] and Shandong Peninsulas, there are basaltic plateaux.
Over a hundred ethnic groups have existed in China. Many of them were assimilated into neighbouring ethnicities. Some, like the Hun, have left China and their current whereabout is unknown. Several previously distinct ethnic groups have Sinicized into the Han, making its population increasing dramatically. The Han, however, had been speaking several virtually unintelligible languages. (See Chinese languages)
The earliest religion are:
Chinese literature have the longest continuous history and had been more numerous than other cultures' for centuries because of the Chinese invention of printmaking. Prior to that, manuscripts of the Classics and religious texts (mainly Confucian, Taoist, and Buddhist) were manually written by ink brushes[?] and distributed. To comment on these works, printed or written, scholars formed numerous academies, many of which were sponsored by the empire, and some royalties constantly participated in the discussions.
Chinese philosophers, writers, and poets have been mostly highly respected, and considered to be those preserving and promoting the culture of the empire. Some classical scholars, however, were noted for their daring depictions of lives of the common people. (See List of Chinese authors, and List of Chinese language poets).
The Chinese created numerous musical instruments, such as zheng[?], xiao[?], that erhu[?], that have spread around East and Southeast Asia, especially to its dependencies. Sheng became the mother of several Western free-reed instruments.
In addition to the above mentioned cultural inventions, technological inventions from China include:
Other areas of science are: