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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR or Soviet Union; Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, SSSR written in the Cyrillic alphabet as CCCP) was a communist country with a totalitarian regime that existed from 1922 until 1991. It stretched from the Baltic and Black Seas to the Pacific Ocean. In its final years it consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSRs). Russia was by far the largest republic in the Soviet Union in terms of both land area and population, and also dominated it politically and economically.

Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik
(In Detail) (Full size)
National motto: Workers of the world, unite!
Official language Russian
Capital Moscow
President Mikhail Gorbachev
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 1st
22,402,200 kmē
 - Total
 - Density
Ranked 3rd
293,047,571 (July 1991)
13,08/kmē (July 1991)
 - Declared
 - Recognised
Russian Revolution
Currency Ruble
Time zone UTC +3 - UTC +11
National anthem (1917-1944) The International, (1944-1991) Hymn of the Soviet Union
Internet TLD.SU

Table of contents
1 External link


Main article: History of the Soviet Union

Unhappiness with the Russian involvement in World War I led to the Russian Revolution and a civil war, ending in the establishing of the Soviet Union, the first communist state, on December 30, 1922.

The country became a major world power after World War II and became the adversary of the United States and the other Western nations in the Cold War conflict.

In 1991, the Soviet Union fell apart after a failed coup attempt by military leaders.


Main article: Politics of the Soviet Union[?]

After the revolution, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) outlawed every other political party. The governing of the country was, in theory, to be done by local and regional democratically elected soviets. In practice, however, each level of government was controlled by its corresponding party group (see democratic centralism). The highest legislative body was the Supreme Soviet. The highest executive body was the Politburo. (More about the political organization of the USSR can be found on Organization of the Communist Party of the USSR.)

See also: List of leaders of the Soviet Union


Main article: Republics of the Soviet Union


Main article: Geography of the Soviet Union[?]


Main article: Economy of the Soviet Union


Main article: Demographics of the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union was one of the world's most ethnically diverse countries, with more than 100 distinct national ethnicities living within its borders. The total population was estimated at 293 million in 1991. The Soviet Union was so large, in fact, that even after all associated republics gained independence Russia, remains the largest country by area (with Canada second), and remained quite ethnically diverse, including, e.g., minorities of Tatars, Udmurts[?], and many other non-Russian ethnicities.


Main article: Culture of the Soviet Union[?]

DateEnglish NameLocal NameRemarks
January 1New Year's Day
January 7Eastern Orthodox Christmas
February 23Hero's Day February Revolution 1917,
Red Army formed on February 23, 1918
March 8International Women's Day
May 1International Labor Day
November 7-[[November 8]Great October Socialist RevolutionOctober Revolution 1917

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