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Demographics of the Soviet Union

Population:
January 1897 (Russia): 125,006,000
December 1926 : 147,000,000 / 167,676,000*
1937: 162,000,000 - 164,000,000**
January 1939: 162,000,000 - 193,077,00**
End-year 1950: 181,760,00
January 1959: 208,827,000
January 1970:241,720
1985: 272,000,000
July 1991:293,047,571

 * J.A Newth2 states 167 millions, RGAE3 states 147 millions.
 ** The census data from 1937 and 1939 is disputed. The censuses were classified, and estimates vary widely. The RGAE states roughly 162 millions for both censuses. Eric Hobsbawm[?]4 states 164 millions for 1937. J.A. Newth states 193 millions for 1939. See History of the Soviet Union.

Population growth rate: 0.7% (1991)

Birth rate: 17 births/1,000 population (1991)

Death rate: 10 deaths/1,000 population (1991)

Net migration rate: 0 migrants/1,000 population (1991)

Infant mortality rate: 23 deaths/1,000 live births (1991)

Life expectancy at birth: 65 years male, 74 years female (1991)

Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1991)

Ethnic groups: The Soviet Union was one of the world's most ethnically diverse countries, with more than 100 distinct national ethnicities living within its borders.

Ethnic divisions: Russian 50.78%, Ukrainian 15.45%, Uzbek 5.84%, Belorussian (Byelorussian or Belarusian) 3.51%, Kazakh 2.85%, Azeri 2.38%, Armenian, 1.62%, Tajik 1.48%, Georgian 1.39%, Moldovan[?] 1.17%, Lithuanian 1.07%, Turkmen 0.95%, Kirghiz 0.89%, Latvian 0.51%, Estonian 0.36%, other 9.75%

Religion: Russian Orthodox 20%, Muslim 10%, Protestant, Georgian Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, and Roman Catholic 7%, Jewish less than 1%, atheist 60% (est.)

Language: Russian (official); more than 200 languages and dialects (at least 18 with more than 1 million speakers); Slavic group 75%, other Indo-European 8%, Altaic 12%, Uralian 3%, Caucasian 2%

Literacy: 98% (male 99%, female 97%) age 15 and over can read and write (1989)

Labor force: 152,300,000 civilians; industry and other nonagricultural fields 80%, agriculture 20%; shortage of skilled labor (1989).

References

1: CIA World Factbook 1991 - most figures.
2: J. A. Newth: The 1970 Soviet Census, Soviet Studies vol. 24, uissue 2 (October 1972) pp. 200-222. - Population figures from 1897 - 1970.
3: The Russian State Archive of the Economy: Soviet Censuses of 1937 and 1939 - Population figures for 1937 and 1939.
http://www.library.yale.edu/slavic/census3739
4Eric Hobsbawm: The Age of Extremes, 1994 - population figure for 1937.



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