The Games of the XI Olympiad
were held in 1936
. Berlin's bid was preferred over Barcelona
. Although awarded before the Nazi Party
came to power in Germany, the government saw the Olympics as a golden opportunity to promote their fascist
ideology. Film-maker Leni Riefenstahl
was commissioned to film the Games. The film, titled Olympia[?]
, was a masterpiece of propaganda
, despite Hitler
's theories of Aryan
racial superiority being repeatedly shown up by non-Aryan athletes. In particular, the black sprinter and long jumper Jesse Owens
won 4 gold medals. The tale of Hitler snubbing Owens at the ensuing medal ceremony is, however, apocryphal.
- Before the Games, the IOC expelled American Ernest Lee Jahnke[?], the son of a German immigrant, for encouraging athletes to boycott. He was replaced by United States Olympic Committee[?] president Avery Brundage[?], who supported the Games.
- In the cycling match sprint finals, the German Toni Merkens[?] fouled Arie van Vliet[?] of the Netherlands. Instead of disqualification he was fined 100 marks and kept his gold gold.
- American Jesse Owens won for gold medals in the sprint and long jump events.
- Rie Mastenbroek of the Netherlands won three gold medals and a silver in swimming.
- Rower Jack Beresford[?] won his fifth Olympic medal in the sport, and his third gold medal.
- For the first time the Olympic Flame was brought to the Olympic Town by a torch relay, with the starting point in Olympia, Greece.
- The games were the first to have live television coverage, Telefunken and Fernseh broadcast over seventy hours of coverage to specially erected booths throughout the city.
- Basketball and handball made their debut at the Olympics, both as outdoor sports. Handball would not appear again on the program until 1972.
- German gymnasts Konrad Frey[?] and Alfred Schwarzmann[?] both won three gold medals.
- In the marathon two Korean athletes -- Sohn Kee-chung and Nam Sung-yong -- won medals, while running for Japan and under Japanese names. Japan had annexed Korea since 1910.
- In the quarter-finals of the football tournament, Peru beat Austria by 4 to 2 in over-time, but a replay was ordered as Peruvian fans stormed the pitch during the match. The Peruvian team left for home in disagreement, while Austria went on to lose the final and receive a silver medal.
See the medal winners, ordered by sport:
1896 | 1900 | 1904 | 1906 | 1908 | 1912 | 1920 | 1924 | 1928 | 1932 | 1936 | 1948 | 1952 | 1956 | 1960 | 1964 | 1968 | 1972 | 1976 | 1980 | 1984 | 1988 | 1992 | 1996 | 2000 | 2004| 2008 | 2012
1924 | 1928 | 1932 | 1936 | 1948 | 1952 | 1956 | 1960 | 1964 | 1968 | 1972 | 1976 | 1980 | 1984 | 1988 | 1992 | 1994 | 1998 | 2002 | 2006 | 2010
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