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Pharmacology

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Pharmacology is a branch of science about medicinal substances, called pharmaceuticals, or simply "drugs". The field encompases drug composition[?], drug properties[?], interactions, toxicology, and desirable effects that can be used in therapy of diseases.

Greek : pharmacon - drug, logos - science.

Medication drugs have to be approved by drug regulatory authorities. This field is called regulatory affairs[?]. The International Conference on Harmonisation (http://www.ich.org) works in the standardisation for this.

There are various classification systems for medicinal products including ATC classification.

Classes of medicinal[?] products:

For the Gastrointestinal Tract
(see also Digestive system) antacid, reflux suppressant, antiflatulent[?], antidopaminergic[?], antispasmodic, proton pump inhibitor, cytoprotectant, prostaglandin analogue, laxative, antidiarrhoeal, colorectal agent[?], pancreatic enzyme[?], bile acids[?]

For the Cardiovascular System
ACE inhibitor, cardiac glycoside, phosphodiesterase inhibitor, nitrate, antiarrhythmic, Beta blocker, antianginal, diuretic, antihypertensive[?], Ca plus plus antagonist, Alpha blocker[?], vasodilator, antihistamine[?], peripheral activator[?], anticoagulant, heparin, antiplatelet drug, fibrinolytic, haemostatic drug[?], hypolipidaemic agent, statin.

For the Central Nervous System
hypnotic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antidepressant anti-emetic[?], anticonvulsant and antiepileptic, movement disorder drug[?], CNS stimulant[?]
barbiturate, tricyclic antidepressants, benzodiazepine, cyclopyrrolone[?], dopamine antagonist[?], antihistamine[?], anticholinergic[?], cannabinoids, 5HT antagonist[?], amphetamine, monoamine oxidase inhibitor, lithium salt, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

For Pain
analgesic, antipyretic, migraine treatment drug
NSAIDs, narcotic analgesic

For Musculo-Skeletal Disorders
NSAIDs, muscle relaxant, neuromuscular drug[?]
anticholinesterase

For Endocrine problems
androgen, antiandrogen, gonadotropin[?], corticosteroid, growth hormone, insulin, antidiabetic[?], thyroid hormones[?], antithyroid drugs[?], calcitonin[?], diphosponate[?], vasopressin analogues[?]

For the Genito-Urinary System[?]
antifungal[?], alkalising agent[?], quinolones, antibiotic, cholinergic[?], anticholinergic[?], anticholinesterase, antispasmodic, 5-Alpha reductase inhibitor[?], selective Alpha 1 blocker[?]

For Infections and Infestations
antibiotic, antifungal[?], antileprotic[?], antituberculous drug[?], antimalarial[?], anthelmintic, amoebicide[?], antiviral, antiprotozoal[?]

For Immunology
vaccine, immunoglobulin, immunosuppressant

For Nutrition
tonic, iron preparation[?], electrolyte, parenteral nutritional supplement[?], vitamins, anti-obesity drug[?], anabolic drug[?], haematopoietic drug[?], food product drug[?]

For the Respiratory System
bronchodilator, NSAIDs, anti-allergic[?], antitussive, mucolytic[?], decongestant[?]
corticosteroid, Beta antagonist[?], anticholinergic[?], steroid

For the Ear, Nose and Oropharynx
sympathomimetic[?], antihistamine[?], anticholinergic[?], NSAIDs, steroid, antiseptic, local anesthetic, antifungal[?], cerumenolytic[?]

For the Eye
anti-infective[?], topical antibiotic[?], astringent[?], NSAIDs, miotics[?], adrenergic neurone blocker[?], carbonic anhydrase inhibitor[?], ocular lubricant[?], mydriatic[?]

For Allergic Disorders
anti-allergic[?], antihistamine[?], NSAIDs

For the Skin
emollient, anti-pruritic[?], antifungal[?], disinfectant[?], scabicide[?], pediculicide[?], tar products[?], vitamin A derivatives[?], vitamin D analogue[?], keratolytic[?], abrasive[?], systemic antibiotic[?], topical antibiotic[?], hormones, desloughing agent[?], exudate absorbant[?], fibrinolytic, proteolytic[?], sunscreen[?], antiperspirant[?]

For Contraception
contraceptive, oral contraceptives, contraceptive devices[?], spermicide[?], depot contraceptives[?]

For Obstetrics and Gynaecology
NSAIDs, anticholinergic[?], haemostatic drug[?], antifibrinolytic[?], Hormone Replacement Therapy, bone regulator[?], Beta agonist[?], follicle stimulating hormone[?], luteinising hormone[?], LHRH[?]
gamolenic acid[?], gonadotropin release inhibitor[?], progestogen, dopamine agonist[?], oestrogen, prostaglandin, gonadorelin[?], clomiphene[?], tamoxifen[?]

For Neoplastc disorders
cytotoxic drug[?], sex hormones, aromatase inhibitor[?], somatostatin inhibitor[?], recombinant interleukin[?]

For diagnostics
contrast media[?]


Types of Pharmacological Preparations

Pharmaceuticals may be provided in a number of different pharmacology forms. Probably the most familiar are tablets and capsules, colloquially known as "pills".


See also

antinfective[?], antiserum[?], chemist, pharmacist, List of pharmaceutical companies, neuroleptic[?], doctors prescription, technology assessment.



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