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Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador
Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador
Motto: Quaerite Primum Regnum Dei (Seek ye first the kingdom of God)
CapitalSt. John's
Area

 - Total
 - % fresh water
10th largest
(7th lgst prov.)

405 212 km²
7,7%
Population
 - Total (2001)
 - Density
Ranked 9th
533 800
1,43/km²
Admittance into Confederation
 - Date
 - Order

1949
12
Time zone UTC -3,5
Postal information (http://www.canadapost.ca)
Postal abbreviation
Postal code prefix
 
NL (formerly NF)
A
ISO 3166-2CA-NL
Parliamentary
representation

 House seats
 Senate seats
 

7
6
PremierRoger Grimes[?] (Lib.)
Lieutenant-GovernorMax House[?]
Government of Newfoundland and Labrador (http://www.gov.nf.ca)
Newfoundland and Labrador (French, Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador) is one of Canada's provinces. Its capital is St. John's. Newfoundland is correctly pronounced "noofin-LAND".

Geographically, the province consists of the island of Newfoundland and the mainland Labrador. Since 1964 the province has referred to itself at a provincial level as "Newfoundland and Labrador", but federally the name "Newfoundland" was used to assuage a dispute with Quebec over whether or not Labrador should be assigned to Newfoundland. In October 2001, a constitutional amendment was passed by the Canadian House of Commons changing the official name to "Newfoundland and Labrador". This amendment came into force on December 6, 2001.

Newfoundland did not become part of Canada until 1949 and until then was a separate dominion of the British Empire.

Newfoundland received a colonial assembly in 1832 which was and still is referred to as the House of Assembly. In 1855 Newfoundland was granted responsible government. Philip Francois Little[?], a native of Prince Edward Island, formed the first administration from 1855 to 1858. Newfoundland rejected confederation in the 1869 general election. It remained as a colony until acquiring dominion status in 1907 along with New Zealand. It attempted to reach a trade agreement with the United States but failed. The Dominion of Newfoundland reached its golden age under the premiership of Sir Robert Bond[?].

Newfoundland produced its own regiment to fight in the First World War. On July 1, 1916, most of that regiment was wiped out. The war debt sustained because of the regiment led to increased borrowing in the post-war era. Political scandal was a severe problem in the 1920s. In 1923 the Prime Minister at the time was arrested on charges of corruption. He was released soon after on bail, but the scandal was reviewed by the British-led Hollis Walker commission. Soon after, the Squires government fell. Squires returned to power in 1928 only to control a country that was drastically hurt by the Great Depression. On April 5, 1932, a mob of 10,000 people marched on the Parliament building and forced Squires to flee. Soon after there was an election and Squires lost again. The next government, led by Frederick Alderdice[?], called upon the British government to take direct control until Newfoundland could be self-sustaining.

(public domain Mercator map) (http://www.aquarius.geomar.de/omc/)

In 1946 an election was held for a National Convention to decide the future of Newfoundland. After much debate, a referendum in July 1948 decided by a vote of 52 to 48 percent for confederation with Canada. Newfoundland joined Canada on April 1, 1949. Politics would be dominated by the Liberal Party[?] under Joseph R. Smallwood[?] until 1972. In 1972 the Smallwood government was finally replaced by the Tory administration of Frank Moores[?]. In 1979 Brian Peckford[?] became Premier. During this time Newfoundland was involved in a serious battle with the federal government for control of offshore oil resources. In the end, the dispute was decided by compromise. In 1989, Clyde Wells[?] and the Liberal Party came to power.

During the 1990s Newfoundland faced a severe environmental and economic crisis. The cod fisheries that had provided Newfoundlanders with a livelihood for over 200 years had become depleted. The federal government helped with a billion-dollar package to rescue Newfoundland. In 1996 former federal politican Brian Tobin came to power. His main goal was to get a good deal out of the recently discovered nickel deposits in Labrador. He resigned and went back to federal politics in 2000. The Liberal Party has found itself in a difficult situation. Internal battling and dispute has left the new premier, Roger Grimes[?], in a weakened position. Newfoundland has been recently involved in a dispute with Nova Scotia over the offshore boundary.

In 2003, the federal government declared a complete moratorium on the cod fishery, owing to severely imperilled stocks of the fish. This caused tempers to flare in all of Atlantic Canada, and in Newfoundland and Labrador, Premier Grimes called for a review of the Act of Union by which the province had become a part of Canada.

On July 2, 2003, the results of the Royal Commission on Renewing and Strengthening Our Place in Canada were released. [1] (http://www.cbc.ca/stories/2003/07/02/nfld_report030703) It noted the following stressors in the relationship between the province and Canada:

  • The huge impact of the destruction of the cod stocks.
  • Hydroelectricity resources in Labrador have primarily benefitted Quebec.
  • Chronically high unemployment.
  • Lowest per-capita income in Canada.
  • The highest tax rates.
  • The worst out-migration.

The report called for:

  • more collaborative federalism;
  • an action team to deal with the fishery;
  • collaboration between Canada, Quebec, and Newfoundland and Labrador on the development of the Gull Island hydro site;
  • revision of the Atlantic Accord so that offshore oil and gas reserves primarily benefit the province;
  • immediate and realistic negotiations on joint management of the fishery.

The text of the report may be found here (http://www.gov.nf.ca/royalcomm/finalreport/default).

Newfoundland has its own dialect of English known as Newfoundland English.

Canada
Alberta B.C. Manitoba New Brunswick Nfld.-Lab.
Nova Scotia Ontario P.E.I. Quebec Saskatchewan
N.W.T. Nunavut Yukon

See also

References

  • "This Marvelous Terrible Place: Images of Newfoundland and Labrador" by Momatiuk et al.,Firefly Books; ISBN 1552092259; (September 1998)
  • "Newfoundland & Labrador" by Lawrence Jackson, Fitzhenry & Whiteside Ltd; ISBN 1550412612; (August 1999)
  • "Atlas of Newfoundland and Labrador" by Department of Geography Memorial University of Newfoundland, Breakwater Books Ltd; ISBN 1550810006; (1991)
  • "Suspended State: Newfoundland Before Canada" by Gene Long, Breakwater Books Ltd; ISBN 1550811444; (April 1, 1999)
  • "True Newfoundlanders: Early Homes and Families of Newfoundland and Labrador" by Margaret McBurney et al., Boston Mills Pr; ISBN 1550461990; (June 1997)
  • "Biogeography and Ecology of the Island of Newfoundland: Monographiae Biologicae" by G. Robin South (Editor) Dr W Junk Pub Co; ISBN 9061931010; (April 1983)

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