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Alternate meaning: New York City
|State nickname: Empire State|
- % water
Ranked 27th |
- Total (2000)
|Admittance into Union
July 26, 1788
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5/-4|
40°29'40"N to 45°0'42"N|
71°47'25"W to 79°45'54"W
455 km |
USS New York was named in honor of this state.
History The Dutch were the first settlers in New York, establishing Fort Orange near Albany in 1624 and New Amsterdam on the island of Manhattan a year later. After the English took over in the 1660s, the colony was renamed New York, after the Duke of York.
In 1683, the government was reorganized into a pattern still followed, and the state was divided into twelve counties, each of which was subdivided into towns. Ten of those counties still exist (see below), but two (Cornwall and Dukes) were in territory purchased by the Duke of York from the Earl of Sterling, and are no longer within the territory of the State of New York, having been transferred by treaty to Massachusetts, Dukes in 1686 and Cornwall in 1692. (Cornwall County became a large portion of the State of Maine when that state was detached from Massachusetts in 1819; Dukes County is still a county in Massachusetts.) While the number of counties has been increased to 62, the pattern still remains that a town in New York State is a subdivision of a county, rather than an incorporated municipality as in most (but not all) other States.
As in all fifty states, the head of the executive branch of government is a Governor. The legislative branch is called the Legislature, and consists of a Senate[?] and an Assembly[?]. For many years, the two houses of the state legislature have been controlled by different political parties, making legislation and particularly budgeting difficult. Unlike most States, the New York electoral law permits electoral fusion, and New York ballots tend to have, in consequence, a larger number of parties on them, some being permanent minor parties that seek to influence the major parties and others being ephemeral parties formed to give major-party candidates an additional line on the ballot.
It borders Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, Canada (Quebec and Ontario), Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and the Atlantic Ocean. The state includes everything from skyscrapers in Manhattan to rivers, mountains, and lakes in upstate New York. Niagara Falls is one of the chief attractions. Three major islands form an important part of the state: Long Island, Manhattan Island, and Staten Island. The Hudson River flows through the eastern portion of the state.
New York is the leading center of banking, finance and communication in the United States. Its 1999 total gross state product was $755 billion, second only to California in the nation. Its 2000 Per Capita Personal Income was $34,547, placing it 4th in the nation. New York's agricultural outputs are dairy products, cattle and other livestock, vegetables, nursery stock, and apples. Its industrial outputs are printing and publishing, scientific instruments, electric equipment, machinery, chemical products, and tourism.
Its major cities and towns are: