|Name, Symbol, Number||Yttrium, Y, 39|
|Chemical series||transition metals|
|Group, Period, Block||3 (IIIB)[?], 5 , d|
|Density, Hardness||4472 kg/m3, __|
|Atomic weight||88.90585 amu|
|Atomic radius (calc.)||180 (212) pm|
|Covalent radius||162 pm|
|van der Waals radius||no data|
|e- 's per energy level||2, 8, 18, 9, 2|
|Oxidation states (Oxide)||3 (weak base)|
|State of matter||Solid (__)|
|Melting point||1799 K (2779 °F)|
|Boiling point||3609 K (6037 °F)|
|Molar volume||19.88 ×10-3 m3/mol|
|Heat of vaporization||363 kJ/mol|
|Heat of fusion||11.4 kJ/mol|
|Vapor pressure||5.31 Pa at 1799 K|
|Speed of sound||3300 m/s at 293.15 K|
|Electronegativity||1.22 (Pauling scale)|
|Specific heat capacity||300 J/(kg*K)|
|Electrical conductivity||1.66 106/m ohm|
|Thermal conductivity||17.2 W/(m*K)|
|1st ionization potential||600 kJ/mol|
|2nd ionization potential||1180 kJ/mol|
|3rd ionization potential||1980 kJ/mol|
|4th ionization potential||5847 kJ/mol|
|5th ionization potential||7430 kJ/mol|
|6th ionization potential||8970 kJ/mol|
|7th ionization potential||11190 kJ/mol|
|8th ionization potential||12450 kJ/mol|
|9th ionization potential||14110 kJ/mol|
|10th ionization potential||18400 kJ/mol|
|Most Stable Isotopes|
|SI units & STP are used except where noted.|
Notable Characteristics Yttrium is a silver-metallic, lustrous rare earth metal that is relatively stable in air and chemically resembles the lanthanides. Shavings or turnings of the metal can ignite in air when they exceed 400 °C. When yttrium is finely divided it is very unstable in air. The metal has a low cross section for nuclear capture. The common oxidation state of yttrium is +3.
Applications Yttrium oxide is the most important yttrium compound and is widely used to make YVO4 europium and Y2O3 europium phosphors that give the red color in color television picture tubes. Other uses;
Yttrium has been studied for possible use as a nodulizer in the making of nodular cast iron which has increased ductility (the graphite forms compact nodules instead of flakes to form nodular cast iron). Potentially, yttrium can be used in ceramic and glass formulas, since yttrium oxide has a high melting point and imparts shock resistance and low expansion characteristics to glass. History Yttrium (Ytterby, a Swedish village near Vauxholm[?]) was discovered by Friedrich Wohler[?] in 1928 as an impure extract of yttria[?] through the reduction of yttrium anhydrous chloride (YCl3) with potassium. Yttria (Y2O3) is the oxide of yttruim and was discovered by Johan Gadolin[?] in 1794 in a gadolinite mineral from Ytterby.
In 1843 Carl Mosander[?] was able to show that yttira could be divided into the oxides (or earths) of three different elements. "Yttria" was the name used for the most basic one and the others were named erbia and terbia.
A quarry is located near the village of Ytterby that yielded many unusual minerals that contained rare earths and other elements. The elements erbium, terbium, and ytterbium and yttrium have all been named after this same town. Occurrence This element is found in almost all rare earth minerals and in uranium ores but is never found in nature as a free element. Yttrium is commercially recovered from monazite sand (3% content, [(Ce, La, etc.)PO4) and from bastnasite (0.2% content, [(Ce, La, etc.)(CO3)F]). It is commercially produced by reducing yttrium fluoride with calcium metal but it can also be produced using other techniques. It is difficult to separate from other rare earths and when extracted, is a dark gray powder.
Lunar rock samples from the Apollo program have a relatively high yttrium content. Isotopes Natural yttrium is composed of only one isotope (Y-89). The most stable radioisotopes are Y-88 which has a half life of 106.65 days and Y-91 with a half life of 58.51 days. All the other isotopes have half lifes of less than a day except Y-87 which has a half life of 79.8 hours. The dominant decay mode below the stable Y-89 is electron capture and the dominant mode after it is beta emission. Twenty six unstable isotopes have been characterized.
Y-90 exists in equilibrium with its parent isotope strontium-90, which is a product of nuclear explosions. Precautions Compounds that contain this element are rarely encountered by most people but should be considered to be highly toxic even though many compounds pose little risk. Yttrium salts may be cancerous. This element is not normally found in human tissue and plays no known biological role.