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This is about the country Luxembourg. For other uses, see Luxembourg (disambiguation).

The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (also Luxemburg) is a landlocked country in north-west Europe, bordered by France, Germany and Belgium.

Grand-Duché de Luxembourg
Großherzogtum Luxemburg   
Grousherzogdem Lëtzebuerg
(In Detail)
National motto: Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sin
(Luxembourgish, We wish to stay what we are)
Official languages French, German, (Luxembourgish)
Capital Luxembourg
Grand DukeGrand Duke Henri[?]
Prime ministerJean-Claude Juncker[?]
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 166th
2,586 km²
 - Total (Year)
 - Density
Ranked 168th
 - Declared
 - Recognised

May 11, 1867
Currency Euro¹, Lux. euro coins
Time zone UTC +1
National anthem Ons Hémécht
Internet TLD.LU
Calling Code352
(1) Prior to 1999: Luxembourg franc

Table of contents

History Main article: History of Luxembourg

Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union[?] and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union) and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.

Politics Main article: Politics of Luxembourg

Luxembourg has a parliamentary form of government with a constitutional monarchy by inheritance. Under the constitution of 1868, executive power is exercised by the Grand Duke and the cabinet, which consists of a prime minister and several other ministers.

Legislative power is vested in the Chamber of Deputies, elected directly to 5-year terms. A second body, the "Conseil d'Etat" (Council of State), composed of 21 ordinary citizens appointed by the Grand Duke, advises the Chamber of Deputies in the drafting of legislation.

Districts Main article: Districts of Luxembourg

Luxembourg is divided in to three administrative subdivisions, or districts:

Geography Main article: Geography of Luxembourg

The north of the country, part of the Ardennes, has hills and low mountains, with the Burgplatz[?] as the highest point at 559 m. The rest of the country is also hilly.

Luxembourg's southern and eastern borders are formed by a number of rivers, among which the largest is the Moselle.

The capital Luxembourg is the largest city of the country. Other important cities are Esch-sur-Alzette (a.k.a. Esch), to the south-west of the capital, and Echternach[?], against the German border in the east.

Economy Main article: Economy of Luxembourg

The stable, high-income economy features moderate growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, until recently dominated by steel, has become increasingly more diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. During the past decades, growth in the financial sector has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Services, especially banking, account for a growing proportion of the economy. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. Luxembourg has especially close trade and financial ties to Belgium and the Netherlands, and as a member of the EU, enjoys the advantages of the open European market.

Demographics Main article: Demographics of Luxembourg

As a small country, much of the population of Luxembourg originates from neighbouring countries, and there are three languages spoken. Besides French (spoken in neighbouring Belgium and France) and German (Germany), Luxembourgish is spoken, which is a mixture of Germanic and Frankish language.

Virtually all Luxembourgers adhere to the Roman Catholic faith.

Miscellaneous topics

External links

European Union:
Austria  |  Belgium  |  Denmark  |  Finland  |  France  |  Germany  |  Greece  |  Ireland
Italy  |  Luxembourg  |  Netherlands  |  Portugal  |  Spain  |  Sweden  |  United Kingdom

Countries acceding to membership on May 1, 2004:
Cyprus  |  Czech Republic  |  Estonia  |  Hungary  |  Latvia  |  Lithuania  |  Malta  |  Poland  |  Slovakia  |  Slovenia

Countries of the world  |  Europe

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