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Capital of China

Numerous cities have been the capital of China during the course of history.

  • Beijing was and has been the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):

State of Yan[?] in Spring and Autumn Period: called Ji (薊 ji4)

Liao Dynasty, as a secondary capital: called Yanjing (燕京 yan4 jing1 "city of Yan")

Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) from Jin Shi Zong[?] until 1220s (1217?): called Zhongdu (中都 zhong1 du1 "central city")

Yuan Dynasty: called Dadu (大都 da4 du1 "great city")

Ming Dynasty since Yongle Emperor of China: called Jingshi (京師 jing1 shi1 "metropolis")

Qing Dynasty since the fall of Ming in 1644.

the current capital of the People's Republic of China

  • Chang'an (modern day Xi'an) was the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):

Western Han Dynasty, from 206 BC to AD 9.

Western Wei Dynasty[?] and Northern Zhou Dynasty[?]

Sui Dynasty

Tang Dynasty

capital of the Wu Yue Kingdom[?] (904-978), during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
China during the Southern Song[?]

  • Jiankang (formerly Jianye) was the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):
Three Kingdoms
Six Dynasty

  • Kaifeng was the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):

Later Liang Dynasty[?] during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

Later Jin Dynasty[?] during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

Later Han Dynasty[?] during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

Later Zhou Dynasty[?] during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

Northern Song Dynasty

  • Luoyang was the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):

Eastern Zhou Dynasty

Eastern Han Dynasty from AD 25 to AD 220.

Kingdom of Wei[?] during the Three Kingdoms.

Western Jin Dynasty

Northern Wei Dynasty since 493 AD, moved its capital from Datong.

Later Tang Dynasty[?] during the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

  • Nanjing was the capital of various Chinese governments including (sorted chronologically):

all of the Six Dynasties:

Kingdom of Wu[?] during the Three Kingdoms

Eastern Jin Dynasty

Song Dynasty

Qi Dynasty,

Liang Dynasty[?]

Chen Dynasty[?]

Ming Dynasty before Yongle Emperor moved the capital to Beijing.

Republic of China after the Northern Expedition until the Japanese invasion in 1937 of WWII, and after the war until Chiang Kai-Shek retreated to Taiwan in 1949.

collaborationist government of Wang Jingwei

  • Xi'an (see Chang'an)

The Chinese phrase Four Great Ancient Capitals of China (中国四大古都 pinyin zhong1 guo2 si4 da4 gu3 du1) refers to Nanjing, Beijing, Xi'an, and Luoyang.



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