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Alcoholic beverage

Alcoholic beverages are drinks containing ethanol, popularly called alcohol. (In chemical terminology, alcohol is a broad category of compound, of which ethanol is only one.) They include low-alcohol-content beverages produced by fermentation of sugar- or starch-containing products, and high-alcohol-content beverages produced by distillation of the low-alcohol-content beverages. (Sometimes, the alcohol content of low-alcohol-content beverages is increased by adding distilled product, particularly in the case of wines. Such fortified wines include Port wine and Sherry.)

The amount of alcohol in an alcoholic beverage is specified in percent alcohol by volume, or in proof.

Alcoholic beverages generally produce an intoxicating effect and cause a hangover. The latter is partly due to the dehydrating effect, which can be mitigated by drinking plenty of water between and after the alcoholic consumptions.

On the other hand, because alcohol kills bacteria, in areas and eras with poor public sanitation, consumption of alcoholic beverages was one method of avoiding water borne diseases.

The names of the beverages are determined by the source of the material fermented:

Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
grain beer, ale, sake (rice) whiskey (also spelled whisky)
juice of fruits, other than apples or pears wine (most commonly from grapes) brandy, grappa (Italy), trester (Germany)
juice of apples ("hard") cider applejack (or apple brandy), Calvados
juice of pears perry, or pear cider pear brandy
juice of sugarcane, or molasses basi, betsa-betsa (regional) rum, cachaša
juice of agave pulque tequila, mezcal
juice of plums   slivovitz

Note that in common speech, wine or brandy is made from grapes unless the fruit is specified: "plum wine" or "cherry brandy" for example, although in some cases grape-derived alcohol is added.

In the U. S., cider often means unfermented apple juice (see the article on cider), while fermented cider is called hard cider. Unfermented cider is sometimes called sweet cider. Also, applejack was originally made by a freezing process described in the article on cider which was equivalent to distillation but more easily done in the cold climate of New England.

Two common distilled beverages not listed in the above chart are vodka and gin. Vodka can be distilled from any source (grain and potatoes being the most common, also industrial cellulose for the cheapest!) but the main characteristic of vodka is that it is so thoroughly distilled as to exhibit none of the flavors derived from its source material. Gin is a similar distillate which has been flavored by contact with herbs and other plant products, especially juniper berries, from which it gets its name.

Alcoholic beverages often are used for ritualistic and symbolic purposes such as for mass or Passover wine. Some religions, most notably Islam, ban the consumption of alcoholic beverages.

Alcoholic beverages can be combined to create cocktails.

see also Wikipedia Cocktail Guide

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