Redirected from Vice President of the United States
The Vice President must have the same constitutional qualifications as the President and cannot come from the same state. (In fact, this second requirement is not a constitutional requirement. What the Constitution provides is that if the candidates for President and Vice President come from the same state, the electors from that state could not vote for both. This might result in the Vice Presidential candidate receiving insufficiently many electoral votes for election even if the Presidential candidate is elected.) In practice the second requirement is easily circumvented by having the Vice President change the state of residency as was done by Dick Cheney who changed his legal residency from Texas to Wyoming in order to serve as Vice President for George W. Bush.
The Vice President serves as the President of the Senate (Article I, Section 3). This job basically amounts to taking care of procedural matters, and the ability to cast a vote in the event of a tie. There is a strong convention within the United States Senate, that the Vice President not use his position as President of the Senate to influence the passage of legislation or act in a partisan manner, except in the case of breaking tie votes.
Since the adoption of the 25th Amendment in 1967, "Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress." (Prior to that time, if the Vice President died in office, resign, or succeeded to the Presidency, the office of Vice President remained vacant until the next Presidential election.)
The 25th Amendment also provides means for the Vice President to temporarily become Acting President upon the temporary disability of the President. This procedure has been activated twice: once on July 13, 1985, when Ronald Reagan underwent surgery to remove cancerous polyps from his colon, and then on June 29, 2002, when President George W. Bush underwent a colonoscopy[?] requiring sedation.
Normally candidates for President will name a candidate for Vice President when they are assured of the party's nomination. Since the Presidential candidate is now generally known before the party convention, this announcement is now typically made in the first day or so of the party convention. Generally the choice of running mate is made by the Presidential candidate alone and often is done to create balance on a ticket. It is common for the Vice Presidential candidate will come from a different region than the President or appeal to a different part of the party.
The formal powers and role of the Vice President with a healthy, functioning President are limited to the Presidency of the Senate, including a casting vote in the event of a deadlock. This was important in 2001, as the Senators were divided 50-50 between Republicans and Democrats and thus Dick Cheney's casting vote gave the Republicans the Senate majority. This ended when Vermont's James Jeffords[?] resigned from the Republican Party and aligned himself to the Democrats (though without actually joining them).
Their other function is as a spokesperson for the administration's policy, and as an adviser to the President. Their influence in this role depends almost entirely on the characteristics of the particular administration. Cheney, for instance, is widely regarded as one of George W. Bush's closest confidantes. Often Vice Presidents will take harder-line stands on issues to ensure the support of the party's base while deflecting partisan criticism away from the President.
Historically, the office of Vice President has been viewed as political suicide. The natural stepping stone to the Presidency was long considered to be the Secretary of State. It has only been fairly recently that this notion has reversed; indeed, the notion was still very much alive when Harry S Truman became the Vice President for Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
|No.||Vice President||Years in Office||Political Party||Notes|
|4||George Clinton||1805-1812||Democratic-Republican||Died in office.|
|5||Elbridge Gerry||1813-1814||Democratic-Republican||Died in office.|
|6||Daniel D. Tompkins||1817-1825||Democratic-Republican|
|7||John Caldwell Calhoun||1825-1832||Democratic-Republican||Resigned to take a seat in the Senate, having been chosen to fill a vacancy.|
|8||Martin Van Buren||1833-1837||Democrat|
|9||Richard Mentor Johnson||1837-1841||Democrat|
|10||John Tyler||1841||Whig||Tyler succeeded to the Presidency when William Harrison died a month into office.|
|11||George Mifflin Dallas||1845-1849||Democrat|
|12||Millard Fillmore||1849-1850||Whig||Fillmore succeeded to the Presidency after Zachary Taylor died in office.|
|13||William Rufus DeVane King||1853||Democrat||Died in office.|
|14||John Cabell Breckinridge||1857-1861||Democrat|
|16||Andrew Johnson||1865||Democrat||Johnson succeeded to the Presidency when Abraham Lincoln was assassinated.|
|18||Henry C. Wilson||1873-1875||Republican||Died in office.|
|19||William Almon Wheeler||1877-1881||Republican|
|20||Chester Alan Arthur||1881||Republican||Arthur succeeded to the Presidency after James Garfield was assassinated.|
|21||Thomas Andrews Hendricks||1885||Democrat||Died in office.|
|22||Levi Parsons Morton||1889-1893||Republican|
|23||Adlai Ewing Stevenson||1893-1897||Democrat|
|24||Garret Augustus Hobart||1897-1899||Republican||Died in office.|
|25||Theodore Roosevelt||1901||Republican||Roosevelt succeeded to the Presidency after William McKinley was assassinated.|
|26||Charles Warren Fairbanks||1905-1909||Republican|
|27||James Schoolcraft Sherman||1909-1912||Republican||Died in office.|
|28||Thomas Riley Marshall||1913-1921||Democrat|
|29||John Calvin Coolidge, Jr.||1921-1923||Republican||Coolidge succeeded to the Presidency after Warren G. Harding died in office.|
|30||Charles Gates Dawes||1925-1929||Republican|
|32||John Nance Garner||1933-1941||Democrat|
|33||Henry Agard Wallace||1941-1945||Democrat|
|34||Harry S Truman||1945||Democrat||Truman succeeded to the Presidency after Franklin Roosevelt died in office.|
|35||Alben William Barkley||1949-1953||Democrat|
|36||Richard Milhous Nixon||1953-1961||Republican||Actually took over the Presidency three times when Eisenhower was ill.|
|37||Lyndon Baines Johnson||1961-1963||Democrat||Johnson succeeded to the Presidency after John F. Kennedy was assassinated.|
|38||Hubert Horatio Humphrey||1965-1969||Democrat|
|39||Spiro Theodore Agnew||1969-1973||Republican||Resigned while under investigation for accepting bribes in his previous position as governor of Maryland.|
|40||Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr.||1973-1974||Republican||Appointed to replace Agnew, Ford succeeded to the Presidency after the resignation of Richard Nixon.|
|41||Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller||1974-1977||Republican|
|42||Walter Frederick Mondale||1977-1981||Democrat|
|43||George Herbert Walker Bush||1981-1989||Republican|
|44||James Danforth Quayle III||1989-1993||Republican|
|45||Albert Arnold Gore, Jr.||1993-2001||Democrat|
|46||Richard Bruce Cheney||2001-present||Republican|
Note: There was no provision (until 1967) for the appointment of a successor upon death or elevation of the Vice President, so the position remained vacant until the next election and inauguration.