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Prime Minister

Alternate use: Prime Minister (band)[?]

A prime minister is the chief member of the cabinet in a parliamentary system of government, or alternatively an official in a presidential system or semi-presidential system whose duty is to execute the directives of the President and manage the civil service.

In a parliamentary system, such as the Westminster System, the Prime Minister is generally in practice the head of the government while the head of state is largely a ceremonial position. In some monarchies the prime minister exercises powers (known as the Royal Prerogative[?]) which are constitutionally vested in the monarch and which can be exercised without the approval of parliament.

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Prime Ministers in both Republics & Monarchies

Prime Ministers can be found in both constitutional monarchies (as is the case in the United Kingdom and Australia), and in republics, where the head of state is an elected or unelected official with varying degrees of real power. This contrasts with a presidential system, where the President (or equivalent) is both the head of state and the head of the government. See also "First Minister", "Premier" which are distinct from "prime minister."

In some presidential or semi-presidential systems such as France, Russia, South Korea or Taiwan the prime minister is an official generally appointed by the President but approved by the legislature and responsible for carrying out the directives of the President and managing the civil service. In these systems, it is possible for the president and the prime minister to be from different political parties if the legislature is controlled by a party different than that of the president. This is a situation which is known as cohabitation.

Method of Entry into Office

In parliamentary systems a prime minister can enter into office by a number of means.

  • by appointment by the head of state without the need for confirmation by parliament; Example: The United Kingdom, where the monarch appoints a prime minister without the need for confirmation from parliament, which gets its first chance to indicate its view on the new government in the vote on the Speech from the Throne, in which the new government outlines its legislative programme. The method of prime ministerial appointment by the British sovereign is known as to Kiss Hands[?]. Article 190 of the 1982 Portuguese Constitution, for example, states that
The Prime Minister shall be appointed by the President of the Republic after consultation and with the parties represented in the Assembly of the Republic, due regard being had to the [general] election results.

  • the head of state nominates a candidate for prime minister who is then submitted to parliament for approval before appointment as prime minister; Example: Spain, where the King sends a nomination to parliament for approval. Also Germany where under the Basic Law (constitution) the Bundestag votes on a candidate nominated by the Federal President. In these cases, parliament can choose another candidate who then would be appointed by the head of state.)

  • the head of state appoints a prime minister who has a set timescale within which s/he must gain a vote of confidence within a specified timespan; (Example: Italy.)

  • direct election by parliament (an extremely rare event.)

  • appointment by a state office holder other than the head of state or his/her representative; Example: Under the modern Instrument of Government 1974, which came into force in 1975, the power of commissioning someone to form a government was moved from the King of Sweden to the Speaker of Parliament, who, once it has been approved, formally makes the appointment.

Though most prime ministers are 'appointed', they are generally if inaccurately described as 'elected'.

Prime Ministers in Constitutions

The position, power and status of prime ministers differ depending on the age of the constitution in individuals.

Britain's unwritten constitution makes no mention of a prime minister. Though it had de facto existed for centuries, its first official mention did in official state documents did not occur until the first decade of the twentieth century.

Australia's Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act (1900) makes no mention of a prime minister of Australia. The office has a de facto existence at the head of the Executive Council.

Ireland's constitution, Bunreacht na hÉireann (1937) provided for the office of taoiseach in detail, listing powers, functions and duties.

Germany's Basic Law (1949) lists the powers, functions and duties of the federal Chancellor.

Exit from Office

Contrary to popular and journalistic myth, most prime ministers in parliamentary systems are not appointed for a specific term of office and in effect may remain in power through a number of elections and parliaments. For example, Margaret Thatcher was only ever appointed prime minister one one occasion, in 1979. She remained continually in power until 1990, though she used the assembly of each House of Commons after a general election to reshuffle her cabinet. Some states, however, do have a term of office of the prime minister linked to the period in office on the parliament. Hence the Irish Taoiseach is formally 'renominated' after every general election. (Some constitutional experts have questioned whether this process is actually in keeping with the provisions of the Irish constitution, which appear to suggest a taoiseach should remain in office, without the requirement of a renomination, unless s/he has clearly lost the general election.)

In parliamentary systems, governments are generally required to have the confidence of the lower house of parliament (though a small minority of parliaments, by giving a right to block Supply to upper houses, in effect make the cabinet responsible to both houses, though in reality upper houses, even when they have the power, rarely exercise it). Where they lose a vote of confidence, have a motion of no confidence passed against them, or where they lose Supply, most constitutional systems require either:

  • resignation, or
  • a request of a parliamentary dissolution.

The latter in effect allows the government to appeal the opposition of parliament to the highest court in the land, the court of public opinion through an election. However in many jurisdictions a head of state may refuse a parliamentary dissolution, requiring the resignation of the prime minister and his or her government. In most modern parliamentary systems, the Prime Minister is the person who decides when to request a parliamentary dissolution. Older constitutions often vest this power in the cabinet. (In Britain, for example, the tradition whereby it is the prime minister who requests a dissolution of parliament dates back to 1918. Prior to then, it was the entire government that made the request. Similarly, though the modern 1937 Irish constitution grants to the Taoiseach the right to make the request, the earlier 1922 Irish Free State Constitution vested the power in the Executive Council (the then name for the Irish cabinet).

Title of Prime Minister

A number of different terms are used to describe prime ministers. The German prime minister is known as the Chancellor while the Irish Prime Minister is called the Taoiseach. In many cases, though commonly used, 'prime minister' is not the official title of the office-holder. One common title is President (or Chairman) of the Council of Ministers. Others include President of the Council of State and President of the Executive Council.

Wikipedia articles on prime ministers

Wikipedia lists of prime ministers Wikipedia includes a series of lists of past and present prime ministers. The following table groups them and details the information available in those lists.

Country Starts 1 Lifespan2 Party 3 Coalition 4 From-To 5 Terms 6
Albania 1914 - - - years yes
Australia 1901 - yes - years yes
Belgium 1973 years - - dates yes
Belize 1973 - yes - years
Canada 1867 - yes - dates yes
Denmark 1972 years - - years yes
Finland 1917 years (partial) - - years -
France 1815 - - - years -
Greece 1843 years - - dates -
Greenland 1979 - - - years -
Iceland 1904 - - - years -
India 1947 - - - years yes
Iraq 1920 - - - years yes
Ireland 1937 - yes yes years -
Israel 1948 - - - years -
Italy 1861 - - - years -
Japan 1885 - - - years yes
Luxembourg 1959 years - - years -
Netherlands 1945 - yes yes dates yes
New Zealand 1856 - - - years yes
North Korea 1948 - n/a - years -
Norway 1814 - - - years -
Poland 1917 - - - dates -
Portugal 1975 years - - years -
Spain 7 1902 - - - years -
Sweden 1876 - partial yes years -
Thailand 1932 - - - years -
United Arab Emirates 1971 - - - years -
United Kingdom 1721 - yes - years -
Notes: Information included in the different lists:
  • "Years" means only the year of election or birth, "Date" the actual date
  • "yes" information is available, "-" information is not included or "n/a" not applicable.
  1. The list of incumbents starts in this year.
  2. Date/year of birth/death of the prime minister.
  3. The party affiliation of the officer holder.
  4. Coalition partners of the governing party.
  5. Dates or years, when the prime ministers were in office.
  6. The number of terms of the ministers.
  7. Adds Head of State

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