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Nobel Peace Prize

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The Nobel Peace Prize is one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. Four of the five prizes are awarded in Stockholm each year, but Nobel had stipulated in his will that the Peace Prize could not be awarded in Sweden. Instead the Norwegian capital of Oslo was chosen as the award site and a Norwegian Nobel Prize Committee is appointed to select the laureate for the Peace Prize.

According to the will of Alfred Nobel the prize should be awarded "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between the nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".

Laureates This is a list of the Nobel Peace Prize laureates:

1901
Jean Henri Dunant (Switzerland), founder of the Red Cross and initiator of the Geneva convention. : Frédéric Passy[?] (France), founder and president of the Societé Française pour l'arbitrage entre nations[?].
1902
Élie Ducommun (Switzerland) and Charles Albert Gobat[?], honorary secretaries of the Permanent International Peace Bureau[?] in Berne.
1903
Sir William Randal Cremer[?] (UK), secretary of the International Arbitration League[?].
1904
Institut De Droit International[?] (Gent, Belgium).
1905
Baroness Bertha Sophie Felicita Von Suttner, née Countess Kinsky von Chinic und Tettau (Austria), writer, honorary president of the Permanent International Peace Bureau[?].
1906
Theodore Roosevelt (USA), president of the United States, for drawing up the peace treaty in the Russo-Japanese War.
1907
Ernesto Teodoro Moneta[?] (Italy), president of the Lombard League of Peace[?]. : Louis Renault[?] (France), professor of International Law.
1908
Klas Pontus Arnoldson[?] (Sweden), founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League[?]. : Fredrik Bajer[?] (Denmark), honorary president of the Permanent International Peace Bureau[?].
1909
Auguste Marie Francois Beernaert[?] (Belgium), member of the Cour Internationale d'Arbitrage[?]. : Paul Henribenjamin Balluet D'estournelles De Constant, Baron De Constant De Rebecque[?] (France), founder and president of the French parliamentary group for international arbitration. Founder of the Comité de défense des intérets nationaux et de conciliation internationale[?]
1910
Bureau International Permanent De La Paix (Permanent International Peace Bureau[?]), Berne.
1911
Tobias Michael Carel Asser[?] (Netherlands), initiator of the International Conferences of Private Law[?] in The Hague. : Alfred Hermann Fried[?] (Austria), founder of Die Waffen Nieder[?].
1912
Elihu Root[?] (USA), for initiating various arbitration agreements.
1913
Henri La Fontaine[?] (Belgium), president of the Permanent International Peace Bureau[?].
1914-1916
Not awarded.
1917
International Red Cross, Geneva.
1918
Not awarded.
1919
Woodrow Wilson (USA) for founding the League of Nations.
1920
Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois, president of the Council of the League of Nations.
1921
Karl Hjalmar Branting[?] (Sweden), prime minister, Swedish delegate to the Council of the League of Nations. : Christian Lous Lange (Norway), secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union
1922
Fridtjof Nansen (Norway), Norwegian delegate to the League of Nations, originator of the Nansen passports for refugees.
1923-1924
Not awarded.
1925
Sir Austen Chamberlain (UK) for the Locarno Treaty[?]. : Charles Gates Dawes[?] (USA), chairman of the Allied Reparation Commission[?] and originator of the Dawes Plan[?].
1926
Aristide Briand (France) for the Locarno Treaty[?] and the Briand-Kellogg Pact. : Gustav Stresemann (Germany) for the Locarno Treaty[?].
1927
Ferdinand Buisson[?] (France), founder and president of the League for Human Rights[?]. : Ludwig Quidde (Germany), delegate to numerous peace conferences.
1928
Not awarded.
1929
Frank B. Kellogg (USA) for the Briand-Kellogg Pact.
1930
Archbishop Lars Olof Nathan (Jonathan) Söderblom[?] (Sweden), leader of the ecumenical movement.
1931
Jane Addams (USA), international president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom[?] : Nicholas Murray Butler[?] (USA) for promoting the Briand-Kellogg Pact.
1932
Not awarded.
1933
Sir Norman Angell (Ralph Lane)[?] (UK), writer, member of the Executive Committee of the League of Nations and the National Peace Council[?].
1934
Arthur Henderson[?] (UK), chairman of the League of Nations Disarmament Conference[?]
1935
Carl von Ossietzky (Germany), pacifist journalist.
1936
Carlos Saavedra Lamas[?] (Argentina), president of the League of Nations and mediator in a conflict between Paraguay and Bolivia.
1937
Viscount Cecil of Chelwood (Lord Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne Cecil)[?], founder and president of the International Peace Campaign[?].
1938
Nansen International Office For Refugees[?], Geneva.
1939-1943
Not awarded.
1944
International Committee of the Red Cross (awarded retroactively in 1945).
1945
Cordell Hull[?] (USA) for co-initiating the United Nations.
1946
Emily Greene Balch[?] (USA), honorary international president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom[?] : John Raleigh Mott[?] (USA), chairman of the International Missionary Council[?] and president of the World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations[?]
1947
The Friends Service Council (UK) and The American Friends Service Committee (USA), on behalf of the Religious Society of Friends, better known as the Quakers.
1948
Not awarded.
1949
Lord John Boyd Orr of Brechin[?] (UK), director General Food and Agricultural Organization[?], president National Peace Council[?], president World Union of Peace Organizations[?].
1950
Ralph Bunche[?] for mediating in Palestine (1948).
1951
Léon Jouhaux[?] (France), president of the International Committee of the European Council[?], vice president of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, vice president of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council[?], delegate to the UN.
1952
Albert Schweitzer (France) for founding the Lambarene Hospital[?] in Gabon.
1953
American Secretary of State George Catlett Marshall for the Marshall Plan.
1954
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
1955-1956
Not awarded.
1957
Lester Bowles Pearson (Canada), president of the 7th session of the United Nations General Assembly.
1958
George Henri Pire[?] (Belgium), leader of L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde[?], a relief organization for refugees.
1959
Philip J. Noel-Baker[?] (UK), for his lifelong ardent work for international peace and co-operation.
1960
Albert John Lutuli[?] (South Africa), president of the ANC (African National Congress).
1961
Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld[?] (Sweden), secretary-general of the UN (awarded posthumously).
1962
Linus Carl Pauling (USA) for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing.
1963
International Committee of the Red Cross, Geneva. : League of Red Cross Societies, Geneva.
1964
Martin Luther King Jr (USA), campaigner for civil rights.
1965
United Nation's Children's Fund (UNICEF)
1966-1967
Not awarded.
1968
René Cassin[?] (France), president of the European Court for Human Rights[?].
1969
International Labour Organization (I.L.O.), Geneva.
1970
Norman Borlaug[?] (USA), for research at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center[?].
1971
Willy Brandt (Germany), for West Germany's Ostpolitik, embodying a new attitude towards Eastern Europe and East Germany[?].
1972
Not awarded.
1973
Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger (USA) and Foreign Minister Le Duc Tho (Vietnam, declined) for the Vietnam peace accord.
1974
Séan Mac Bride[?] (Ireland), president of the International Peace Bureau[?] and the Commission of Namibia of the United Nations. : Eisaku Sato (Japan), prime minister.
1975
Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (USSR) for his campaigning for human rights.
1976
Betty Williams[?] and Mairead Corrigan[?], founders of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement[?] (later renamed Community of Peace People[?]).
1977
Amnesty International, London.
1978
President Mohamed Anwar Al-Sadat[?] (Egypt) and Prime Minister Menachem Begin (Israel) for negotiating peace between Egypt and Israel.
1979
Mother Teresa (India)
1980
Adolfo Pérez Esquivel (Argentina), human rights
1981
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
1982
Alva Myrdal (Sweden) and Alfonso García Robles[?] (Mexico), delegates to the United Nations General Assembly on Disarmament.
1983
Lech Walesa (Poland), founder of Solidarnosc and campaigner for human rights.
1984
Bishop Desmond Mpilo Tutu (South Africa) for his work against apartheid.
1985
International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, Boston.
1986
Elie Wiesel (USA).
1987
Oscar Arias Sanchez (Costa Rica) for initiating peace negotations in Central America.
1988
The United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces[?], New York.
1989
Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama.
1990
President Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (USSR) for helping to end the Cold War.
1991
Aung San Suu Kyi (Burma), opposition leader and human rights advocate.
1992
Rigoberta Menchu Tum (Guatemala), for campaigning for human rights, especially for indigenous peoples.
1993
President Nelson Mandela (South Africa) and Former President Frederik Willem de Klerk (South Africa).
1994
PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat (Palestine), Foreign Minister Shimon Peres (Israel) and Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin (Israel).
1995
Joseph Rotblat[?] (Poland/UK) and the Pugwash[?] Conferences on Science and World Affairs, for their efforts in the fight against nuclear arms.
1996
Carlos Felipe Ximenes Belo (East Timor) and Jose Ramos-Horta (East Timor) for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor.
1997
International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL)[?] and Jody Williams[?] (VVAF) for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines.
1998
John Hume (UK) and David Trimble (UK) for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland.
1999
Medecins Sans Frontieres, Brussels.
2000
President Kim Dae Jung (South Korea) for his work for democracy and human rights, and in particular for peace and reconciliation with North Korea.
2001
The United Nations and its secretary-general Kofi Annan (Ghana)
2002
Jimmy Carter - former President of USA "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"

See also: Pacifism, List of pacifists

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