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The Republic of Namibia is a country in southwest Africa, on the Atlantic coast. It is bordered by Angola and Zambia to the north, Botswana to the east, and South Africa to the south. It gained independence in 1990, and as such it is one of the youngest nations in the world.

Republic of Namibia
(In Detail[?])
National motto: "Unity, Liberty, Justice"
Official languageEnglish
Capital Windhoek
President Sam Nujoma[?]
Prime minister Theo-Ben Gurirab[?]
 - Total
 - % water
Ranked 33rd
825,418 km²
 - Total (2002)
 - Density
Ranked 143rd
IndependenceMarch 21, 1990
Currency Namibian dollar[?]
Time zone UTC +1
National anthem Namibia, Land of the Brave[?]
Internet TLD .NA
Calling Code264

Table of contents

History Main article: History of Namibia

The dry lands of Namibia, inhabited by Bantu, were not extensively explored by Europeans until the 19th century, when the land came under German control as South-West Africa, with the exception of Walvis Bay, which was under British control. South Africa occupied the colony during World War I and administered it as a League of Nations mandate until after World War II when it unilaterally annexed the territory.

In 1966 the Marxist South-West Africa People's Organisation[?] (SWAPO) guerrilla group launched a war of independence for the area that was soon named Namibia, but it was not until 1988 that South Africa agreed to end its administration in accordance with a United Nations peace plan for the entire region. Independence came in 1990, while Walvis Bay was ceded to Namibia in 1994.

Politics Main article: Politics of Namibia

The Namibian head of state is the president, who is elected by popular vote every five years. The government is headed by the prime minister, who is appointed by the president, together with his cabinet. SWAPO, the primary force behind independence that has since moved away from its Marxist roots, is currently still the country's largest party.

Namibia's bicameral parliament consists of the National Council, which holds 26 seats occupied by two members chosen from each regional council to serve six-year terms, and the National Assembly of 78 seats, of which 72 members are elected by popular vote and 6 non-voting members are appointed by the president. All serve five-year terms.

The Assembly is the primary legislative body, with the Council playing more of an advisory role. The 1990 constitution is noted for being one of the first to incorporate protection of the environment into its text. The highest judiciary body is the Supreme Court, whose judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission.

Regions Main article: Regions of Namibia[?]

Namibia is subdivided into 13 regions:

Geography Main article: Geography of Namibia

The Namibian landscape consists primarily of central highlands of which the highest point is the Brandberg[?] at 2,606 m. The central plateau runs from north to south, bordered by the Namib Desert and its coastal plains in the west, the Orange River in the south, and the Kalahari Desert in the east. A remarkable strip of land in the northeast known as the Caprivi Strip[?] is the remainder of a narrow corridor for the Germans to access the Zambezi River[?].

The Namibian climate ranges from desert to subtropical and is generally hot and dry; precipitation is sparse and erratic. Besides the capital city Windhoek, in the centre of the country, important towns are the ports of Walvis Bay and Swakopmund[?], as well as Oshakati[?], Grootfontein[?] and Keetmanshoop[?].

Economy Main article: Economy of Namibia

The economy is heavily dependent on the extraction and processing of minerals for export. Mining accounts for 20% of GDP. Namibia is the fourth-largest exporter of non-fuel minerals in Africa and the world's fifth-largest producer of uranium. Rich alluvial diamond deposits make Namibia a primary source for gem-quality diamonds. Namibia also produces large quantities of lead, zinc, tin, silver, and tungsten.

About half of the population depends on agriculture (largely subsistence agriculture) for its livelihood. Namibia must import some of its food. Although per capita GDP is five times the per capita GDP of Africa's poorest countries, the majority of Namibia's people live in pronounced poverty because of large-scale unemployment, the great inequality of income distribution, and the large amount of wealth going to foreigners. The Namibian economy has close links to South Africa. Agreement has been reached on the privatisation of several more enterprises in coming years, which should stimulate long-run foreign investment.

Demographics Main article: Demographics of Namibia

The majority of the Namibian population is black, mostly of the Ovambo[?] tribe, which forms about half of the population. The small white population (about 6%) is mostly of German descent.

While the official language is English, most of the population speaks either Afrikaans or German. Several indigenous languages are also spoken. Christianity is the major religion, with the Lutheran Church being the largest.

Miscellaneous topics

External Links

Countries of the world  |  Africa

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