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# Dicotyledon

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Dicotyledons
Scientific classification
 Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida
Orders
Subclass Asteridae
Asterales (sunflowers) - 1 family
Callitrichales - 2 families
Calycerales - 1 family
Campanulales - 6 families
Dipsacales - 4 families
Gentianales - 4 families
Lamiales - 5 families
Plantaginales - 1 family
Polemoniales - 1 family
Scrophulariales - 12 families
Solanales - 7 families
Subclass Caryophyllidae
Caryophyllales - 12 families
Plumbaginales - 1 family
Polygonales - 1 family
Subclass Dilleniidae
Batales - 1 family
Capparales - 6 families
Diapensiales - 1 family
Dilleniales - 2 families
Ebenales - 5 families
Ericales - 7 families
Lecythidales - 1 family
Malvales - 6 families
Nepenthales - 3 families
Primulalales - 3 families
Salicales - 1 family
Theales - 13 families
Violales[?] - 21 families
Subclass Hamamelidae
Casuarinales[?] - 1 family
Fagales - 3 families
Hamamelidales - 6 families
Juglandales[?] - 3 families
Leitneriales[?] - 1 family
Myricales[?] - 1 family
Urticales - 6 families
Subclass Hamamelididae
Daphniphyllales[?] - no families listed
Didymelales[?] - no families listed
Eucommiales[?] - 1 family
Trochodendrales[?] - 2 families
Subclass Magnoliidae
Aristolochiales - 1 family
Illiciales - 2 families
Laurales - 4 families
Magnoliales - 14 families
Nymphaeales - 4 families
Papaverales - 2 families
Piperales - 3 families
Ranunculales - 7 families
Subclass Rosidae
Apiales - 2 families
Celestrales[?] - 11 families
Cornales - 5 families
Euphorbiales - 6 families
Fabales - 1 family
Geraniales - 5 families
Haloragales - 4 families
Linales[?] - 3 families
Myrtales - 12 families
Podostemales[?] - 2 families
Polygalales[?] - 7 families
Proteales - 1 family
Rafflesiales[?] - 3 families
Rhamnales - 4 families
Rhizophorales[?] - 1 family
Rosales - 20 families
Santalales - 12 families
Sapindales - 16 families

Dicotyledons are flowering plants whose seeds are divided into two seed lobes, or cotyledons, in germinating. These cotyledons may be ephemeral, lasting only days after emergence, or persistent, lasting a year or more. The name dicot is also used for these plants.

Traditionally the dicots are treated as a class, called the Magnoliopsida or Dicotyledoneae. They are now generally believed to be paraphyletic to the monocotyledons, however, and so some newer systems (e.g. Reveal) divide them. Nearly all fall into a monophyletic group called the eudicots, but this does not include the type genus, Magnolia. Thus in systems which separate them out, the name Rosopsida is used for the eudicots and Magnoliopsida for a basal group.

#### Synonyms and common names

Synonyms: Dicotyledoneae, Magnoliatae
Common names: Dicotyledons, dicots

#### Reference

ITIS - Magnoliopsida (as of 2002-05-30) (http://www.itis.usda.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=18063)

#### Problems

ITIS' classification is somewhat controversial at the moment. There is good reason to expect that many of the groups are para- or polyphyletic, and a number of alternative classifications have arisen.

Sarraceniales - this order is empty in ITIS; its contents appear to now be included in the Nepenthales. Umbellales - this order is empty in ITIS; most of its contents appear to have been moved to the Apiales.

Families with uncertain placement. These families are not mentioned in ITIS. The names mostly result from modern cladistics. Of course, the plants themselves always existed, and are likely already in the taxa listed above, but with a different name that has not yet been identified. They will be moved when enough information is available. A usable chart of families may be found at [1] (http://www.museums.org.za/bio/plants/angiospermae-classif.htm). Description of most of these families may also be found on the Delta site [2] (http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/angio/).

• Berberidopsidaceae[?] - The coral plant of Chile
• Aphloiaceae[?] - Included in Rosidae by some, Violales by others. See also [3] (http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/orders/crossosomatalesweb.htm)
• Vahliaceae[?] - 1 genus Vahlia or Bistella with 5 species. Included in Rosales by some, Saxifragales by others. See Delta [4] (http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/angio/www/vahliace.htm) for more information.
• Plocospermataceae[?] - 1 genus, 3 species. Variously included in Scrophulariales, Gentianales and Loganiaceae. See Delta [5] (http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/angio/www/plocospe.htm).

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