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Germination is the emergence of the seedling[?] from the seed. Seeds must be mature and the environmental factors must be favorable before germination can take place.

When a mature seed is placed under favorable conditions and fails to germinate, it is said to be dormant. There are two basic types of dormancy. The first, seed coat dormancy[?] or external dormancy[?], is caused by the presence of a hard seed covering or seed coat which prevents water and oxygen from reaching and activating the seed or prevents seed expansion. The second type of dormancy, embryo dormancy[?] or internal dormancy[?], is caused by the condition of the seed which prevents germination.

The length of time plant seeds remain dormant can be reduced or eliminated by a simple seed treatment called stratification.

Seeds should be planted promptly after stratification. If the seed is allowed to dry out, dormancy may be triggered again and your efforts will be wasted.

A large seedbed is not needed for a home operation, but the area should be selected carefully. The area should be well-drained and fairly open, close to a source of water and protected from animals. Add fertilizer to a poor soil. The fertilizer should be worked into the soil well before planting.

After the seeds have been planted, the seedbed should be kept moist. If the soil around the seeds dries out, dormancy may be triggered again. When the seedlings begin to emerge, 20-30 days after planting, watering should be stopped. The young seedlings should be watered only when the root zone dries out. The seedbed should be kept well-weeded. If the weeds become too large, you may uproot the young seedlings when weeding[?].

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