There are a number of Periods
While many ideas, forms and architects
do not necessarily fall into classifiable zones, this is an attempt to organize the field systematically.
- Neolithic architecture
- Egyptian architecture[?]
- Ancient Mesopotamian architecture
- Sumerian architecture
- Babylonian architecture[?]
- Assyrian architecture[?]
- Persian architecture[?]
- Indian architecture[?]
- Islamic architecture[?]
- Bhutanese architecture
- Chinese architecture[?]
- Japanese architecture[?]
- Mayan architecture[?]
- Incan architecture[?]
- Aztec architecture[?]
- Minoan architecture[?]
- Mycenaean architecture[?]
- Greek architecture - Temples and theaters constructed basically from marble characterized by columns:
- Doric - single molded top with no base,
- Ionic - base with scrolled top,
- Corinthian - base with ornate top.
- Roman architecture - Amphitheaters, basilicas, aqueducts, baths and temples constructed largely of stone, concrete and brick and featuring the development of the arch.
- Composite - used Ionic scrollwork with Corinthian leaves;
- Tuscan[?] - plain Doric style.
- Romanesque architecture (Norman) - Vaults and arches created from stone and buildings of thick stone characterize Romanesque architecture. Interiors simple and severe with geometric designs.
- Byzantine architecture[?] - Dome characterized this period, plaster added to outside surfaces as a building medium. Interiors brightly colored and ornate, using marbles and mosaics for frescoes and decoration. Iconagraphy and Iconstasis walls a focus.
- Gothic architecture - High naves with flying buttresses[?], bridges of stone and large windows sectioned into many small panes by stonework are features of this style. Pointed arches, elaborate carving, curved windows, and doors developed.
- Renaissance architecture - Revival and adaptation of Greek and Roman architecture featuring domes and rectangular columns frequently embedded in walls.
- Baroque architecture[?] - - Ornate style with elaborate carvings using gilt, plaster and paint in flowing curves and designs.
- Rococo - A more ornate Baroque style featuring illusionism, a focus on the oval shape, interiors, and less of a stress on building materials.
- Federal style[?] - (or Neoclassical architecture[?]) An American style exemplified by classical ornamentation and smooth sweeping surfaces, for example Monticello by Thomas Jefferson late 1700s early 1800s.
More modern architectural styles
- Art nouveau - (or Eclectic and revival styles[?]) - An 1890s style in architecture, graphic arts, and interior design characterized by writhing forms, curving lines, and asymmetrical organization. Some critics regard the style as the first stage of modern architecture.
- Chicago school - This movement is marked by utilitarian construction of factories, apartments, and railroad stations. Durability stressed in use of steel, iron, cement, and wrought iron, reinforced glassed used to create domed ceilings. In particular, they pioneered use of steel construction in high rise buildings. It is related to the Prairie school[?] of residential architecture.
- Art Deco - A 1920s style characterized by setbacks, zigzag forms influenced by Egyptian art, and use of chrome and plastic ornamentation. New York' s Chrysler Building is an architectural example of the style.
- International style[?] - (Modern Architecture)- Low steel constructed buildings with glass walls covering large areas in vogue at beginning, then evolved into glass box high rise. Bauhaus School[?] pioneered this style.
- Postmodernism - a return to classical forms in modern structures IBM Tower[?] by Philip Johnson
Note - any classification of style/subject/form/idea of the last 20-30 years is highly suspect as taboos, influences and human nature cloud the classification system.
Also see Cultural movement
Some additional labels:
- Hellenistic architecture[?]
- British (especially) architectural styles (chronologically):
- Queen Anne[?]
- Arts and Crafts
- Early Christian
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