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Seljuk Turks

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The Seljuks (Seldjuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz (or Ğuz) Turks that lived in Central Asia in the 9th to 13th century. The Seljuks migrated into western Asia[?] in the 10th century while fighting with various tribes on their way. They accepted Sunni Islam and founded dynasties in Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria and Anatolia. The Seljuk Empire's lands covered approximately today's Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Turkey, all of the Middle East and a part of the Arabian peninsula. An Oghuz bey (chief) called Seljuk (Seldjuq) was the founder of the dynasty. His son led the Seljuks during the migration and his grandson, Toğrül[?], conquered Persia and occupied Baghdad. He died in 1063 in favour of his nephew (the great-grandson of Seljuk), Alp Arslan, who invaded Anatolia at the Battle of Manzikert in the 1070s.

Seljuk Turks can be regarded as the ancestors of Western Turks (today's Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan). They and their descendants (i.e., the Ottoman Empire) played a major role in medieval times by setting a barrier against the Mongol onslaught, defending the Islamic world against Crusaders and bringing an end to the Byzantine Empire. The fact that they embraced Sunni Islam and defended it with an irresistible power is one of the reasons why this branch is the major and most populous division of Islam.

Table of contents

Seljuk Great Sultans, 1038-1157

Seljuk Sultans of Khorasan, 1097-1157

Seljuk Sultans of Iraq and Western Iran, 1118-1194

  • Mahmud II 1118-1131
  • Dawud 1131-1132
  • Tughril II 1132-1134
  • Mas'ud 1134-1152
  • Malik Shah III 1152-1153
  • Mohammed II 1153-1160
  • Sulaiman Shah 1160-1161
  • Arslan Shah 1161-1176
  • Tughril III 1176-1194

Seljuk Sultans of Rum (Anatolia), 1077-1307

  • Suleiman ibn Kutalmish[?] 1077-1086
  • Kilij Arslan I[?] 1092-1107
  • Malik Shah I 1107-1116
  • Mas'ud[?] 1116-1156
  • Kilij Arslan II[?] 1156-1192
  • Kay Khosru I 1192-1196
  • Suleiman II 1196-1204
  • Kilij Arslan III 1204-1205
  • Kay Khosru I (2nd time) 1205-1210
  • Kay Kaus I 1210-1220
  • Kay Kobadh I 1220-1237
  • Kay Khosru II 1237-1246
  • Kay Kaus II 1246-1257
  • Kilij Arslan IV 1248-1265
  • Kay Kobadh II 1249-1257
  • Kay Khosru II (2nd time) 1257-1259
  • Kay Khosru III 1265-1282
  • Mas'ud II 1282-1284
  • Kay Kobadh III 1284
  • Mas'ud II (2nd time) 1284-1293
  • Kay Kobadh III (2nd time) 1293-1294
  • Mas'ud II (3rd time) 1294-1301
  • Kay Kobadh III (3rd time) 1301-1303
  • Mas'ud II (4th time) 1303-1307
  • Mas'ud III 1307

Seljuk Kings of Syria

Kings of Damascus Kings of Aleppo
  • Ridwan[?] 1095-1113
  • Alp Arslan 1113-1114
  • Sultan Shah 1114-1117

Seljuk Rulers of Kerman, 1041-1187

  • Qawurd 1041-1073
  • Kerman Shah 1073-1074
  • Sultan Shah 1074-1075
  • Husain Omar 1075-1084
  • Turan Shah I 1084-1096
  • Iran Shah 1096-1101
  • Arslan Shah I 1101-1142
  • Mohammed I 1142-1156
  • Tughril Shah 1156-1169
  • Bahram Shah 1169-1174
  • Arslan Shah II 1174-1176
  • Turan Shah II 1176-1183
  • Mohammed II 1183-1187

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