Sociologists define rural as those areas which are not urban. Rural sociology, then, contrasts with urban sociology[?]. Urban areas are usually defined in terms of size and population density. The line between urban and rural is quite arbitrary. However, rural settlement patterns tend to be, relatively, small in scale and low in density.
In the US, a rural region is one with less than 2,500 people. In Japan, a rural region is one with less than 50,000 people. Meanwhile, some places with 1,000 people seem quite urbanized while other places with 15,000 people seem quite rural. Also, many "rural" areas are adjacent to very large metropolises.
Currently, rural capital is flowing into either urban areas or some 33-40% of rural counties, namely the intermountain West[?], the Ozarks[?], counties along I-80[?] in Nebraska, and the Kansas City area. The growth of wealth is concentrated near urban areas, transportation corridors, and scenic amenities. (2)(3).
Rural America is also experiencing an economic slump, for instant in 1999 the prices for sweetcorn, wheat, and soybeans were all down about 33% from the 1995-1998 average. Food production is being subsidized by off-farm income. Working second and third jobs is the only way many farmers can survive. In 1974, 80% of farm operators were primarily farmers, by 1997 that had dropped to 60%. (4)
Natural resource-based industries, within rural areas, are experiencing resource depletion. The economic importance of mining, light manufacturing, and agriculture are considered to be on the decline, within these areas.
Rural society is faced with various problems including the environmental degradation and overuse of water resources, the establishment and inadequate regulation of toxic waste dumps, and poverty. The loss of rural population to urban areas is also an area of concern, especially in northern states, such as North Dakota.
Fred Buttel asks, "Will we witness a further erosion of commitment to improving the livelihoods of the rural poor?"
Rural sociology became prominent, during the late industrial revolution, in France, Ireland, Prussia, Scandinavia, and the US. As urban incomes and quality of life rose, a social gap appeared between urban and rural dwellers.
In the 1920s, Edmund deS. Brunner[?] studied some 140 villages as director of the Institute for Social and Religious Research[?], he reported that as agriculture mechanized, farms were growing larger.
See also: List of literature on rural sociology
American Agricultural Economic Association[?], country life movement[?], European Society for Rural Sociology[?], Galpin, Charles J.[?], granger movement[?], Hibbard, Benjamin[?], Morrill Act, populist movement[?], Purnell Act of 1925[?], report of the commission on country life (1911)[?], Rural Sociological Society[?], Taylor, Henry, Turner, Jonathan Baldwin[?], US Department of Agriculture, Warren, George[?]