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Pomerania

Pomerania (German: Pommern, Pom(m)erland, Polish: Pomorze) is a land or province which before World War I (eastern part, "Pomorze Gdanskie") and World War II (western part, "Pomorze Szczecinskie") belonged to Germany and is currently divided between Germany and Poland. It neighbors the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship[?] and is situated at the Baltic Sea on both sides of the Odra River and reaches to the Vistula river. The history of the region is rich and varied, perhaps due to its having been under the rule of many different powers through the centuries of its existence.

Note: this article is in a transitional phase, as it was merely a list of events with no sources. An attempt is being made at turning this into something coherent, but the reader should bear in mind that this is an uncited work in progress. Questions to be answered appear in italics.

Pomerania as the name was the first written in the 11th century. At this point of time it was settled by Lechitic Pomeranians, that had to constantly defend themselves from the Viking raids. Pomeranians, made their living from the sea, trading and fishing. Sometimes they even raided Vikings in their homes. On this occasion we should note that the ships of Pomeranians were not distinguishable from ships of Vikings themselves.

One of the earliest references to its area comes in 962 when Mieszko I of Poland inherited eastern Pomerania. In the 960s Mieszko fought with the tribes of Wieletes and Volinians south of the Baltic Sea, and their ally, the Saxon count Wichman. We suppose that then he at least partially conquered western Pomerania (Polish: Zapomorze, German Vorpommern).

Later on, he defeated Count Dietrich of the Northern March at Cedynia in 972, and reached the mouth of the Oder River in 976. The decisive battle, fought in 979, ensured Mieszko's position as count of the march. The following year he celebrated his victory by dedicating the city of Gdansk at the mouth of the Vistula River, to compete with the ports of Szczecin and Wolin on the Oder (all in Pomerania province). Shortly before Mieszko's death he placed his state under the suzerainty of the Pope in a document usually called the Dagome Iudex, which included Pomerania among his lands.

His son and successor Boleslaus I of Poland continued his father's conquests in Pomerania i.e. in 995, when he personally led his army. In A.D. 1000, while on a pilgrimage to the tomb of St. Adalbert at Gniezno, the emperor Otto III invested Boleslaus with the title Frater et Cooperator Imperii ("Brother and Partner of the Empire"), and confirmed the rights of Boleslaus to Pomerania. On the same visit Otto III gave Boleslaus rights to create the first Pomeranian bishopric in Kamien. The ultimate aim was to christianize the Pomeranians.

Nevertheless, the mission was destroyed, when Pomeranians revolted against the church in 1005. The events brought 5 new martyrs to the Catholic church. This was the first time that the country split: the Eastern part, along Vistula River remained subject to Poland, while Western Pomerania tended to remain independent and pagan.

Canute was the son of sea-king Sweyn Forkbeard, also reputed to be a member of the Jomsburg Vikings, a military organisation of mercenary warriors with a fortress based in Pomerania. However, there is still some dispute among historians over the existence of the Jomsvikings. Canute's mother was Gunhild[?] (formerly Swiatoslawa, daughter of Mieszko I of Poland). In around 1020 Canute the Great made a deal with Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor and the emperor gave Canute the Mark of Schleswig and Pomerania to govern. Nevertheless, Pomerania or parts thereof may have been or may not have been part of that deal. In any event, Boleslaus I of Poland actually sent his troops to help Canute in his successful conquest of England.

In 1107 there were the civil war in Poland, between Duke Boleslaus III of Poland and his brother Zbigniew. As Zbigniew was allied to Pomeranians, Boleslaus brought warriors to Pomerania and destroyed Belgard, Koeslin, Cammin and Wollin. By 1121/22 Boleslaus III had also conquered Stettin. Duke Wartislaus I of Pomerania then accepted the suzerainty of Boleslaus III. Once his reign was consolidated (1124), Boleslaus asked Otto of Bamberg to convert Pomerania to Christianity, which he accomplished. After Otto's departure, however, some people fell back into heathen ways and Otto returned in 1128, aided by the emperor Lothar II.

This makes no sense, since the above paragraphs imply that Boleslaus had already conquered Pomerania. 1135 Duke Boleslaus III again set out on a trip north to conquer Pomerania, but at the imperial court (Reichstag) of Merseburg Boleslaus had to accept rule over Pomerania as lien from emperor Lothar. This ended with Boleslaus' death in 1138.

Construction of a castle was started. Who began construction?

In 1164 the dukes of Pomerania become liens-taker of Henry the Lion. Liens-taker isn't English, and I'm not sure what this means

During the reign of Otto I, Margrave of Brandenburg[?] and son of Albert I of Brandenburg (1100-1170) the Brandenburger wanted the suzerainty over Pomerania. How did we get here -- what happened between 1164 and 1170 to transfer rule to Brandenburg?

In 1181 Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor invested Duke Bogislaw with Pomerania. Why did he do this and where is Bogidslaw duke? The next paragraph implies that Bradenburg lost its rights, but then regained them -- what happened? And where (except with Canute in 1024) do the Danes come in? Does this mean that the Danes contested other claims?

Between 1185 and 1227 the Western Pomerania remained under suzerainty of Denmark. However 1198/99 Brandenburg again tried held the suzerainty over Western Pomerania. Their virtual rights are recognized by king (later emperor) Frederick II in 1214. After the Battle of Bornhoeven[?] remaining Danish suzerainty rights were removed. Treaties of 1236 and 1250 between Pomeranian dukes and margraves of Brandenburg verify the Brandenburg lordship. Stargard and the northern Uckermark come into direct ownership of Brandenburg.

In 1231 Emperor Frederick II again invested the Ascanian Brandenburg margraves with the dukedome of Pomerania.

In 1266 Barnim I, duke of Pomerania, who had inherited his brothers' parts, married Mechthild, the daughter of Otto III, Margrave of Brandenburg[?]. Then in 1269 duke Barnim promised in his testimony the city of Danzig and other parts of Eastern Pomerania to his father-in-law, the margrave of Brandenburg. Barnim however had no right to do it, since Eastern Pomerania was ruled by the Mscislaw[?] dukes of Swiecie family, who decided that after his death Pomerania should return to Poland. Schwetz was to be inherited after his death. Barnim died in 1278 at Altdamm. Presumably Danzig, Schwetz, and Altdamm are in Pomerania...except I thought that some might be in Prussia? But if they are in Prussia, why are they here? Also, I think we need clarification on "his brother's parts" -- does this mean "his brother's lands or holdings?

After the line of the dukes of Pomerania died out in 1294, strifes broke out and in 1295 Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg verified the Lehnshoheit of Brandenburg over Pomerania. From Brandenburg it was dispensed to the sons of Barnim I, Otto I and Bogislaw IV. New lines Pommern-Wolgast and Pommern-Stettin were started. Harbors, waterways etc were to be held in common and it remained that way until those lines became exinct in 1464. How did Adolf get the right to do this? Also, can we get a better translation for Lehnshoheit?

In line with the will of the duke Mscislaw[?] of the Eastern Pomerania, the king [Przemysl II of Poland] took over [Gdansk|Danzig] in 1294. When he was killed by an assassin sent from Brandenburg in 1295, the country shared with the rest of Poland controversy over succession. Temporary ruled by the Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and his son Wenceslaus III[?], previous King of Bohemia and Poland, later also King of Hungary, he settled under suzerainty of the Wladislaw Lokietek[?] of greater Poland and Kujavia.

This is very unclear -- where do the Teutonic knights come in? Also, from what is said earlier, it appears that Boleslaw III also held Pomerania for several years, and that Pomerania had once been under Polish suzereignty...?

When in summer 1300 Wenceslaus II of Bohemia was occupied, he asked the Teutonic Knights for protection of the Pomerania province from Brandenburg claims. In 1306Wladislaw Lokietek[?] possessed Danzig. When in 1308 the margrave of Brandenburg attacked Danzig Lotietek called the Teutonic Knights for help. The Brandenburgers had to leave, but then the Teutonic Knights also chased the Polish garrison from the Danzig castle. This was followed by the slaughter of the citizens of the Danzig city, known as "massacre of Gdansk". Landmaster Heinrich von Tczew) and Schwetz[?] and was lord over all of Pommerania. The margraves had to leave the land to the Teutonic Order in the 1309 treaty of Soldin and received 10,000 Mark. Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor verified this in 1313. Being to this time part of Eastern Pomerania districts Schlawe[?], Ruegenwalde[?], Stolp remained with Brandenburg. Question--is there any substantiaton for this alleged massacre? Even a basically pro-Polish page such as http://stabi.hs-bremerhaven.de/whkmla/region/eceurope/gdanskpre1309 does not mention this. Answer -- even a fanatically pro-German book "The Vanished Kingdom" by James Charles Roy talks about the massacre in detail. And why are you calling this German site -"basically pro-Polish"? However, rulers of Poland believed they are legal proprietors of Pomerania. Since the wealth of the province was incurred by the trade and the main trade route for the country was the Vistula river, that linked the Pomerania with the rest of Poland, citzens of the province, despite of their language and nationality were driven more and more into links with Poland.

Here follows a 500 year gap in Pomerania's history -- what happened?

During this time parts of Pomerania belonged to Sweden, between 1648 and 1815. In 1812, when French troops marched into Pomerania, The Swedish army mobilized and 1813 won against Napoleon in the battle by Leipzig, together with troops from Russia, Preussia and Austria. Sweden also attacked Denmark. During the peace negotiations in Kiel 1814, Sweden got Norway, but gave Pomerania to Prussia 1815.

After the extinction of the Ascanian Brandenburg line several other ruling houses were invested with the administration of Pomerania by the empire. After Napoleon's break-up of the empire in 1806, the Western Part was the member of the Deutsche Bund. After foundation of the German Empire of 1871, the whole of Pomerania was included into the newly created state.

After 1945 the eastern part of Pomerania, according to an agreement signed in Potsdam in 1945 by the United Kingdom, United States of America and Soviet Union, was given under the temporary administration of Poland until a peace treaty signed in 1990.

The eastern part of Pomerania, Pomorze, is a geographical and historical region in Poland that encompasses three Polish voivodships: the West Pomeranian Voivodship (Zachodniopomorskie), Pomeranian Voivodship (Pomorskie) and the Kujavian-Pomeranian Voivodship (Kujawsko-Pomorskie). The most western part of Pomerania (Zapomorze or Vorpommern) is part of the German state (Bundesland) of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern).



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