Encyclopedia > Liber Pater

  Article Content

Dionysus

Redirected from Liber Pater

Dionysus and Dionysius the Elder were two different people in Greek mythology. For Dionysius the Elder, click here.

Dionysus (also known as Bacchus (Roman) and Liber), the Greek god of wine, was the son of Zeus and Semele (in Eleusis, Zeus and Demeter). He represented not only the intoxicating power of wine, but its social and beneficent influences likewise; he was viewed as the promoter of civilization, and a lawgiver and lover of peace, as well as the patron deity of both agriculture and the theater. He is a life-death-rebirth deity.

Table of contents

Worship

Dionysus was a god of mystery religious rites, such as those practiced at Eleusinian mysteries. In the Thracian mysteries, he wore the "bassaris" or fox-skin, symbolizing new life. (See also Maenads)

Many scholars believe that Dionysus was a fusion of a local Greek nature deity and a more powerful god from Thrace or Phrygia such as Sabazius.

Dionysus was strongly associated with the satyrs, centaurs and sileni. He always carried a thyrsus. The ivy plant was sacred to him.

Bacchanalia

Introduced into Rome (c. 200 BC) from lower Italy by way of Etruria, the bacchanalia were held in secret and attended by women only, on three days in the year in the grove of Simila[?] near the Aventine Hill, on March 16 and 17. Subsequently, admission to the rites were extended to men and celebrations took place five times a month. The notoriety of these festivals, where many kinds of crimes and political conspiracies were supposed to be planned, led in 186 BC to a decree of the Senate--the so-called Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus, inscribed on a bronze tablet discovered in Calabria (1640), now at Vienna--by which the Bacchanalia were prohibited throughout all Italy except in certain special cases which must be approved specifically by the Senate. In spite of the severe punishment inflicted on those found in violation of this decree, the Bacchanalia were not stamped out, at any rate in the south of Italy, for a very long time.

Dionysus was equated with both Bacchus and Liber (also Liber Pater). Liber ("the free one") was a god of fertility and growth, married to Libera. His festival was the Liberia, celebrated on March 17.

Appellations

Dionysus sometimes had the epithet Bromios, meaning "the thunderer" or "he of the loud shout". Another epithet was Dendrites; as Dionysus Dendrites ("he of the trees"), he was a powerful fertility god. Dithyrambos ("he of the double door") was sometimes used to refer to him or solemn songs sung to him at festivals. The name refers to his premature birth. Iacchus, possibly an epithet of Dionysus, was associated with the Eleusinian mysteries; in Eleusis, he was known as a son of Zeus and Demeter. The name "Iacchus" may come from the iakchos[?], hymns sung in honor of Dionysus. Eleutherios ("the liberator") was an epithet for both Dionysus and Eros. As Lenaeus, he was the god of the wine-press. With the epithet Liknites ("he of the winnowing fan") he was a fertility god connected with the mystery religions. A winnowing fan was similar to a shovel and was used to separate the chaff from the good, cut grain. In addition, Dionysus was known as Lyaeus ("he who releases") as a god of relaxation and freedom from worry. In the Greek pantheon, Dionysus (along with Zeus) absorbed the role of Sabazius, a Phrygian deity. In the Roman pantheon, Sabazius became an alternate name for Bacchus.

Birth

Dionysus had an unusual birth. His mother was Semele (daughter of Cadmus), a mortal woman, and his father Zeus, the king of the gods. Zeus's wife, Hera, a jealous and vain goddess, discovered the affair while Semele was pregnant. Appearing as an old crone, Hera befriended Semele, who confided in her that her husband was actually Zeus. Hera pretended not to believe her, and planted seeds of doubt in Semele's mind. Curious, Semele demanded of Zeus that he reveal himself in all his glory as proof of his godhood. Though Zeus begged her not to ask this, she persisted and he agreed. Mortals, however, can not look upon a god without dying, and she perished. Zeus rescued the fetal Dionysus, however, by sewing him into his leg. A few months later, Dionysus was born. This leads to his being called "the twice-born".

In another version of the same story, Dionysus (often called Zagreus, the supreme god of Greek Orphism[?], in this account) was the son of Zeus and Persephone, the queen of the underworld. A jealous Hera again attempted to kill the child, this time by sending Titans to rip Dionysus to pieces after luring the baby with toys. Though Zeus drove the Titans away with his thunderbolts but only after the Titans ate everything but the heart, which was saved, variously, by Athena, Rhea, or Demeter. Zeus used the heart to recreate Dionysus and implant him in the womb of Semele, hence he was again "the twice-born". Sometimes it was said that he gave Semele the heart to eat to impregnate her. The rebirth in both versions of the story is the primary reason he was worshipped in mystery religions, as his death and rebirth were events of mystical reverence.

Childhood

The legend goes that Zeus took the infant Dionysus and gave him in charge to the Nysaean[?] nymphs, who nourished his infancy and childhood, and for their care were rewarded by Jupiter by being placed, as the Hyades, among the stars. Alternatively, he was raised by Maro.

When Dionysus grew up he discovered the culture of the vine and the mode of extracting its precious juice; but Hera struck him with madness, and drove him forth a wanderer through various parts of the earth. In Phrygia the goddess Rhea cured him and taught him her religious rites, and he set out on a progress through Asia teaching the people the cultivation of the vine. The most famous part of his wanderings is his expedition to India, which is said to have lasted several years. Returning in triumph he undertook to introduce his worship into Greece, but was opposed by some princes who dreaded its introduction on account of the disorders and madness it brought with it.

As a young man, Dionysus was exceptionally attractive. Once, while disguised as a mortal on a ship, the sailors attempted to kidnap him for their sexual pleasures. Dionysus mercifully turned them into dolphins but saved the captain, Acoetes, who recognized the god and tried to stop his sailors.

Midas

Once, Dionysus found his old school master and foster father, Silenus, missing. The old man had been drinking, and had wandered away drunk, and was found by some peasants, who carried him to their king, Midas (alternatively, he passed out in Midas' rose garden). Midas recognized him, and treated him hospitably, entertaining him for ten days and nights with politeness, while Silenus entertained Midas and his friends with stories and songs. On the eleventh day he brought Silenus back to Dionysus. Dionysus offered Midas his choice of whatever reward he wanted. Midas asked that whatever he might touch should be changed into gold. Dionysus consented, though was sorry that he had not made a better choice. Midas rejoiced in his new power, which he hastened to put to the test. He touched and turned to gold an oak twig and a stone. Overjoyed, as soon as he got home, he ordered the servants to set a feast on the table. Then he found that his bread, meat, daughter and wine turned to gold and became inedible.

Upset, Midas strove to divest himself of his power (the Midas Touch); he hated the gift he had coveted. He prayed to Dionysus, begging to be delivered from starvation. Dionysus heard and consented; he told Midas to wash in the river Pactolus[?]. He did so, and when he touched the waters the power passed into them, and the river sands became changed into gold. (Note: this explained why the river Pactolus was rich in gold)

Other Stories

When Hephaestus bound Hera to a magical chair, Dionysus got him drunk and brought him back to Olympus after he had passed out. For this act, he was made one of the twelve Olympians.

Acis, a Sicilian youth, was sometimes said to be Bacchus' son. A satyr named Ampelos was a good friend of Bacchus.

Callirhoe was a Calydonian[?] woman who scorned a priest of Dionysus who threatened to inflict all the women of Calydon with insanity (see Bacchae). The priest was ordered to sacrifice Callirhoe but he killed himself instead. Callirhoe threw herself into a well which was later married after her.

As Dionysus was almost certainly a late addition to the pantheon of Greek mythology, there was some hostility to his worship. Homer mentions him only briefly and with much hostility. Euripedes also wrote a tale concerning the destructive nature of Dionysus in his play entitled "The Bacchae". Since Euripedes wrote this play while in the court of King Archelaus of Macedon, some scholars believe that the cult of Dionysus was malicious in Macedon but benign in Athens. In the play, Dionysus returns to his birthplace, Thebes, ruled by his cousin, Pentheus. Pentheus was angry at the women of Thebes, including his mother, Agave, for denying his divinity and worshipping Dionysus against his will. The worshippers of Dionysus were known as blood-thirsty, wild women called Maenads. The women tore Pentheus to shreds after he was lured to the woods by Dionysus. His body was mutilated by Agave.

When King Lycurgus of Thrace heard that Dionysus was in his kingdom, imprisoned all the followers of Dionysus, the Maenads. Dionysus fled, taking refuge with Thetis. Dionysus then sent a drought and the people revolted. Dionysus made King Lycurgus insane, and he sliced his own son into pieces with an axe, thinking he was a patch of ivy[?], a plant holy to Dionysus. An oracle then claimed that the land would stay dry and barren as long as Lycurgus was alive. His people had him drawn and quartered. With Lycurgus dead, Dionysus lifted the curse.

Consorts/Children

  1. Aphrodite
    1. Charites
      1. Aglaea
      2. Euphrosyne
      3. Thalia
    2. Hymenaios
    3. Priapus
  2. Ariadne
    1. Oenopion
  3. Nyx
    1. Phthonus
  4. Unknown mother
    1. Acis

The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche contrasted Dionsyus with the Apollo as a symbol of the basic life force as against the world of form and beauty represented by the latter.



All Wikipedia text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

 
  Search Encyclopedia

Search over one million articles, find something about almost anything!
 
 
  
  Featured Article
Chu Si-kyeong

... with ...