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Composite family

Sunflowers
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genera
  Acamptopappus[?] goldenhead
  Acanthospermum[?] starburr
  Achillea yarrow
  Achyrachaena[?] blow wives
  Acmella[?] spotflower
  Acourtia[?] desert peony, desertpeony
  Acroptilon[?] hardheads, Russian knapweed
  Actinospermum[?]
  Adenocaulon[?] trailplant
  Adenophyllum[?] dogweed
  Adenostemma[?] medicineplant
  Ageratina[?] snakeroot
  Ageratum[?] whiteweed
  Agoseris[?] mountain dandylion
  Almutaster[?] alkalai marsh aster
  Amberboa[?]
  Amblyolepis[?]
  Amblyopappus[?]
  Ambrosia[?] bursage, ragweed
  Ampelaster[?] climbing aster
  Amphiachyris[?] broomweed
  Amphipappus[?] chaffbush
  Anacylus[?]
  Anaphalis[?] pearly everlasting
  Ancistrocarphus[?] neststraw, woolly fishhooks
  Anisocoma[?]
  Antennaria[?] pussytoes
  Anthemis[?] Roman chamomile
  Antheropeas[?] easter bonnets, easterbonnets
  Aphanostephus[?] doze daisy, dozedaisy
  Arctium burdock, burrdock
  Arctotheca[?] capeweed
  Arctotis[?]
  Argyranthemum[?] dill daisy
  Argyroxiphium[?] silversword
  Arnica[?] arnica
  Arnoglossum[?] Indian plaintain
  Arnoseris[?]
  Artemisia tarragon,
      sagebrush, sagewort, wormwood, mugwort
  Asanthus[?] brickellbush
  Aster L.
  Astranthium[?] western daisy
  Atrichoseris[?]
  Ayapana[?]
  Baccharis[?]
  Bahia
  Baileya[?] desert marigold
  Balduina[?] honeycombhead
  Balsamita[?]
  Balsamorhiza[?] balsamroot
  Baltimora[?]
  Barkleyanthus[?] willow ragwort
  Bartlettia[?]
  Bebbia[?] sweetbush
  Bellis
  Benitoa[?]
  Berkheya[?]
  Berlandiera[?] greeneyes
  Bidens[?] beggartick
      devil's sticktight, Spanish needles
  Bigelowia[?] rayless goldenrod
  Blennosperma[?] stickyseed
  Blepharipappus[?]
  Blepharizonia[?]
  Blumea[?] FALSE oxtongue
  Boltonia[?] doll's daisy
  Borrichia[?] seaside tansy
  Brachyactis[?] rayless aster
  Bradburia[?]
  Brickellia[?] brickelbush, brickellbush
  Brickelliastrum[?] brickellbush
  Brintonia[?] mock goldenrod
  Cacalia[?]
  Cacaliopsis[?]
  Calendula marigold
  Callistephus
  Calotis[?]
  Calycadenia[?] western rosinweed
  Calycoseris[?] tackstem
  Calyptocarpus[?]
  Canadanthus[?] mountain aster
  Carduus[?] plumeless thistle
  Carlina[?] carline thistle
  Carminatia[?]
  Carphephorus[?] chaffhead
  Carphochaete[?] bristlehead
  Carthamus[?] distaff thistle
  Castalis[?]
  Centaurea knapweed, star thistle
  Centipeda[?]
  Centratherum[?]
  Chaenactis[?] pincushion
  Chaetadelpha[?] skeletonweed
  Chaetopappa[?] least daisy
  Chamaechaenactis[?]
  Chamaemelum[?] dogfennel
  Chamomilla[?] chamomilla
  Chaptalia[?] sunbonnetts
  Chloracantha[?] Nesom
  Chondrilla[?]
  Chromolaena[?] thoroughwort
  Chrysactinia[?]
  Chrysanthellum[?]
  Chrysanthemum daisy
  Chrysogonum[?]
  Chrysoma[?]
  Chrysopsis[?] goldenaster
  Chrysothamnus[?] rabbitbrush
  Cichorium chicory
  Cirsium[?] thistle
  Clappia[?] clapdaisy
  Clibadium[?]
  Cnicus[?] blessed thistle
  Columbiadoria[?]
  Complaya[?]
  Condylidium[?] villalba
  Conoclinium[?] thoroughwort
  Conyza[?] horseweed
  Coreocarpus[?]
  Coreopsis[?] tickseed
  Corethrogyne[?] sandaster
  Cosmos[?]
  Cotula[?] L. -- water buttons, waterbuttons
  Crassocephalum[?] ragleaf
  Crepis[?] hawksbeard
  Critonia[?] thoroughwort
  Crocidium[?] spring-gold
  Croptilon[?] scratchdaisy
  Crupina[?]
  Cyanopsis[?] knapweed
  Cyanthillium ironweed
  Cymophora[?]
  Cynara
  Dahlia
  Delairea[?] capeivy
  Dendranthema[?] arctic daisy
  Dichaetophora[?]
  Dicoria[?] twinbugs
  Dicranocarpus[?]
  Dimeresia[?]
  Dimorphotheca[?] cape marigold
  Dittrichia[?]
  Doellingeria[?] whitetop
  Doronicum[?] FALSE leopardbane
  Dracopis coneflower
  Dubautia[?]
  Dugaldia[?]
  Dysodiopsis[?] dogfennel
  Dyssodia[?] dogweed
  Eastwoodia[?]
  Eatonella[?]
  Echinacea[?] purple coneflower, coneflower
  Echinops[?] globethistle
  Eclipta[?]
  Egletes[?] tropic daisy
  Elephantopus[?] elephantsfoot
  Eleutheranthera[?]
  Emilia[?] tasselflower
  Encelia[?] brittlebush
  Enceliopsis[?] sunray
  Engelmannia[?] Engelmann's daisy
  Enydra[?] swampwort
  Erechtites[?] burnweed
  Ericameria[?] goldenbush, heath goldenrod
  Erigeron[?] daisy, fleabane
  Eriophyllum[?] woolly sunflower
  Eucephalus aster, eucephalus
  Euchiton[?]
  Eupatorium[?] thoroughwort
  Euphrosyne[?]
  Eurybia aster
  Euryops[?]
  Euthamia[?] goldentop
  Evax[?] pygmy cudweed
  Facelis[?] trampweed
  Filago[?] cottonrose
  Fitchia[?]
  Flaveria[?] yellowtops
  Fleischmannia[?] thoroughwort
  Florestina[?]
  lourensia[?] tarwort
  Flyriella[?] brickellbush
  Gaillardia[?] blanketflower
  Galinsoga[?] gallant-soldier
  Gamochaeta[?] everlasting
  Garberia[?]
  Gazania[?]
  Geraea[?] desert sunflower
  Gerbera[?] Transvaal daisy
  Glyptopleura[?]
  Gnaphalium[?] cudweed
  Gochnatia[?]
  Grindelia[?] gumweed
  Guardiola[?]
  Guizotia[?]
  Gundelia[?]
  Gundlachia[?]
  Gutierrezia[?] snakeweed
  Gymnosperma[?] Less.
  Gymnostyles[?] burrweed
  Gynura[?] Cass.
  Haplocarpha[?] onefruit
  Haploesthes[?] FALSE broomweed
  Hartwrightia[?]
  Hasteola[?] FALSE Indian plantain
  Hazardia[?] bristleweed
  Hebeclinium[?] thoroughwort
  Hecastocleis[?]
  Hedypnois[?]
  Helenium[?] sneezeweed
  Helianthella[?]
  Helianthus[?] sunflower
  Helichrysum[?] strawflower
  Heliomeris[?] FALSE goldeneye
  Heliopsis[?]
  Hemizonia[?] tarweed
  Herrickia[?]
  Hesperevax[?] dwarf-cudweed
  Hesperodoria[?] glowweed
  Hesperomannia[?] island-aster
  Heteranthemis[?] oxeye
  Heterosperma[?]
  Heterotheca[?] FALSE goldenaster, telegraph plant
  Hieracium[?] hawkweed
  Hofmeisteria[?]
  Holocarpha[?] tarweed
  Holozonia[?]
  Hulsea[?] alpinegold
  Hymenoclea[?] burrobrush, burrobush
  Hymenopappus[?]
  Hymenothrix[?] thimblehead
  Hymenoxys[?] rubberweed
  Hypochaeris[?] catsear
  Inula[?] yellowhead
  Ionactis aster
  Isocarpha[?] pearlhead
  Isocoma[?] goldenbush, jimmyweed
  Iva[?] marshelder, sumpweed
  Ixeris[?]
  Jamesianthus[?]
  Jaumea[?]
  Jefea[?]
  Kalimeris aster
  Keysseria[?]
  Koanophyllon[?] thoroughwort
  Koyamacalia[?]
  Krigia[?] dwarfdandelion
  Lactuca lettuce
  Laennecia[?] laennecia, laennicia
  Lagascea[?]
  Lagenifera[?] island-daisy
  Lagophylla[?] hareleaf
  Lapsana[?] nipplewort
  Lapsanastrum[?] nipplewort
  Lasianthaea[?]
  Lasiospermum[?] cocoonhead
  Lasthenia[?] goldfields
  Launaea[?]
  Layia[?] tidytips
  Leibnitzia[?] sunbonnets
  Lembertia[?]
  Leontodon[?] hawkbit
  Lepidospartum[?] broomsage
  Lessingia[?] vinegarweed
  Leucanthemella[?]
  Leucanthemopsis[?]
  Leucanthemum[?] daisy, oxeye daisy
  Liatris[?] blazing star, gay feather
  Lindheimera[?]
  Lipochaeta[?] nehe
  Litrisa[?]
  Logfia[?] cottonrose
  Luina[?] silverback
  Lygodesmia[?] skeleton plant, skeleton weed
  Machaeranthera[?] goldenweed, tansyaster
  Madia[?] tarweed
  Malacothrix[?] desert dandelion
  Malperia[?]
  Mantisalca[?]
  Marshallia[?] Barbara's buttons
  Matricaria[?] mayweed
  Megalodonta[?] watermarigold
  Melampodium blackfoot
  Melanthera[?] squarestem
  Micropus[?] cottonseed
  Microseris[?] silverpuffs
  Mikania[?] hempvine
  Monolopia[?]
  Monoptilon[?] desertstar
  Montanoa[?]
  Mycelis[?]
  Neurolaena[?]
  Nicolletia[?] hole-in-the-sand plant
  Nothocalais[?] prairie-dandelion
  Oclemena aster
  Oligoneuron goldenrod
  Omalotheca[?] arctic cudweed
  Oncosiphon[?]
  Onopordum[?] cotton thistle
  Oonopsis[?] FALSE goldenweed
  Oreochrysum goldenrod
  Oreostemma aster
  Orochaenactis[?]
  Osmadenia[?] Nutt.
  Osteospermum[?] daisybush
  Packeraragwort
  Palafoxia[?] palafox
  Parasenecio[?] Indian plantain
  Parthenice[?]
  Parthenium[?] feverfew
  Pascalia[?]
  Pectis[?] cinchweed, fetid marigold
  Pentachaeta[?] pygmydaisy
  Pentzia[?]
  Perezia[?]
  Pericallis ragwort
  Pericome[?]
  Perityle[?] rock daisy, rockdaisy
  Petasites[?] butterbur
  Petradoria[?] rock goldenrod
  Peucephyllum[?] pygmy cedar, pygmycedar
  Phalacroseris[?] mock dandelion
  Phoebanthus[?] FALSE sunflower
  Picradeniopsis bahia
  Picris[?] oxtongue
  Picrothamnus[?] bud sagebrush
  Pinaropappus[?] rock lettuce, rocklettuce
  Piptocarpha[?] ashdaisy
  Piptocoma[?] velvetshrub
  Pityopsis[?] silkgrass
  Platyschkuhria[?] basindaisy
  Pleurocoronis[?]
  Pluchea[?] camphorweed
  Plummera[?]
  Podocoma[?]
  Polymnia[?]
  Porophyllum[?] poreleaf
  Prenanthella[?]
  Prenanthes[?] rattlesnakeroot
  Prionopsis[?]
  Proustia[?]
  Psacalium[?] Indianbush
  Psathyrotes[?] turtleback
  Pseudelephantopus[?] dog's-tongue
  Pseudobahia[?] sunburst
  Pseudoclappia[?] FALSE clapdaisy
  Pseudognaphalium[?] cudweed, falsecudweed
  Pseudogynoxys[?]
  Psilactis[?] tansyaster
  Psilocarphus[?] woollyheads, woolyheads
  Psilostrophe[?] paperflower
  Pterocaulon[?] blackroot
  Pulicaria[?] FALSE fleabane
  Pyrrhopappus[?] desert chicory
  Pyrrocoma[?] goldenweed
  Rafinesquia[?] California chicory
  Raillardella[?] silvermat
  Raillardiopsis[?]
  Rainiera[?]
  Ratibida[?] prairie coneflower
  Rayjacksonia[?] tansyaster
  Reichardia[?] brighteyes
  Remya[?]
  Rhagadiolus[?]
  Rigiopappus[?]
  Rolandra[?] yerba de plata
  Roldana groundsel
  Rudbeckia coneflower
  Rugelia[?] Rugel's Indianplantain
  Sachsia[?]
  Salmea[?] bejuco de miel
  Santolina[?] lavender cotton
  Sanvitalia[?] creeping zinnia
  Sartwellia[?] glowwort
  Saussurea[?] saw-wort
  Schkuhria[?] FALSE threadleaf
  Sclerocarpus[?] bonebract
  Sclerolepis[?] bogbutton
  Scolymus[?] goldenthistle
  Scorzonera[?]
  Senecio groundsel, ragwort
  Sericocarpus[?] whitetop aster
  Serratula[?] plumeless saw-wort
  Shinnersia[?]
  Shinnersoseris[?] beaked skeletonweed
  Sigesbeckia[?] St. Paul's wort
  Silphium[?] rosinweed
  Silybum[?] milk thistle, milkthistle
  Simsia[?] bush sunflower
  Smallanthus[?]
  Solidago goldenrod
  Soliva[?] burrweed
  Sonchus[?] sow thistle, sowthistle
  Sphaeromeria[?] chickensage
  Sphagneticola[?] creeping-oxeye
  Spilanthes[?] toothache flower
  Spiracantha[?] dogwoodleaf
  Stebbinsoseris[?] silverpuffs
  Stenotus[?] mock goldenweed
  Stephanomeria[?] wire lettuce
  Stevia[?] candyleaf
  Stokesia[?]
  Struchium[?]
  Stylocline[?] neststraw
  Symphyotrichum aster
  Synedrella[?]
  Synedrellopsis[?]
  Synosma[?]
  Syntrichopappus[?] Fremont's gold
  Tagetes marigold
  Tamaulipa[?] boneset
  Tanacetum[?] tansy
  Taraxacum dandelion
  Tephroseris groundsel
  Tetradymia[?] horsebrush
  Tetragonotheca[?] nerveray
  Tetramolopium[?]
  Tetraneuris[?] four-nerve daisy
  Thelechitonia[?].
  Thelesperma[?] greenthread
  Thurovia[?]
  Thymophylla[?] pricklyleaf
  Tithonia[?]
  Tolpis[?] umbrella milkwort
  Tonestus[?] serpentweed
  Townsendia[?] Townsend daisy
  Tracyina[?] Indian headdress
  Tragopogon[?] goat's beard, salsify
  Trichocoronis[?] bugheal
  Trichoptilium[?]
  Tridax[?]
  Trilisa[?]
  Trimorpha[?] boreal daisy
  Tripleurospermum[?] mayweed
  Tripolium[?] sea aster
  Trixis[?] threefold
  Tussilago[?] coltsfoot
  Uropappus[?] silverpuffs
  Urospermum[?]
  Vanclevea[?]
  Varilla[?]
  Venegasia[?]
  Venidium[?]
  Verbesina[?] crownbeard
  Vernonia ironweed
  Viguiera goldeneye
  Wedelia[?] creepingoxeye
  Whitneya[?]
  Wilkesia[?] iliau
  Wollastonia[?]
  Wyethia[?] mule-ears
  Xanthisma[?] sleepydaisy
  Xanthium[?] cocklebur
  Xanthocephalum[?]
  Xylorhiza[?] woody aster
  Yermo[?] desert yellowhead
  Youngia[?]
  Zaluzania[?]
  Zexmenia[?]
  Zinnia[?]
and about 1050 more.
Ref. ITIS 35420 (http://www.itis.usda.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=35420) 2002-09-10
For full list, see Kew (http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/cgi-bin/web.dbs/genlist.pl?COMPOSITAE)

The sunflower family (Asteraceae or Compositae) is a family of dicot flowering plants.

Asteraceae is a large and diverse family whose typical inflorescence (what many people mistake for a single flower) is a densely packed cluster of many individual flowers called florets. The arrangement of florets within this cluster (or head) is such that each flower is separated from the next by approximately the golden ratio, producing a pattern of spirals where the number of left spirals and the number of right spirals are successive Fibonacci numbers.

Members of the Asteraceae have one or both of two kinds of florets. The outer-most perimeter of composites like the sunflower is composed of a row of florets each possessing a long strap-like petal, termed ligule; these are the ray flowers. The inner portion of the flower (or disc) is composed of small flowers with tubular corollas[?]; these are the disc flowers. The composition of Asteraceous inflorescences varies from all ray flowers (like dandelions, genus Taraxacum) to all disc flowers (like pineapple weeds[?]).

The composite nature of these inflorescences led early taxonomists to call this family the Compositae. Since most plant families have the suffix -aceae, efforts to make the family name more standard motivated changing the name from Compositae to Asteraceae.

References ITIS report 2002-09-10 (http://www.itis.usda.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=35420)

Dirk R. Walters and David J. Keil (1996). Vascular plant taxonomy. 4th ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Dubuque, Iowa



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