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Wars of Scottish Independence

The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of campaigns launched after the English annexation of Scotland in 1296.

The Scottish crown had long been in disarray when Edward I of England was appointed to arbitrate the succession. He picked the claimant who promised to aknowledge the overlordship of the English King over the Scottish King. The claimant John Balliol agreed to these terms, but soon chaffed under British control. In 1295 John renounced his allegiance to Edward.

This brought about a swift invasion by Britain which defeated the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar (1296). Balliol was deposed and Scotland was annexed to England. After this defeat parts of Scotland rose up in revolt under William Wallace. Despite some notable successes, such as the Battle of Stirling Bridge in 1297, Wallce was betrayed and executed by the British.

The revolt calmed for a period, until Robert the Bruce, an claimant to the throne of Scotland, who was facing murder charges elected to try to lead Scotland in revolt. This time the Scots were more successful and Robert the Bruce defeat Edward II of England and the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314.

In 1320 the Declaration of Arbroath was issued by the Pope aknowledging Scottish independence from England.

Battles of the Scottish Wars of Independence:

See also: Edward I of England, Edward II of England, William Wallace, Robert the Bruce, Berwick-upon-Tweed, John Balliol.



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