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Berwick-upon-Tweed

Berwick-upon-Tweed is a town in Northumberland, England, close to the border between England and Scotland.

The status of Berwick-upon-Tweed was anomalous from the 15th century (the last time it was captured by England from Scotland) until 1885 when the Reform Act[?] made it administratively part of England. The town is north of the river Tweed[?], and was formerly the county town of Berwickshire. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I vast sums were spent on its fortifications, in the new style, designed both to withstand artillery and to facilitate its use from within the fortifications. After King James VI of Scotland also became James I of England in 1603, it was not returned to Scotland. Various proclamations authored before 1885 referred to "England, Scotland and the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed".

One such was the declaration of war against Russia in 1853, but it was not named in the peace treaty of 1856 - was it still at war with Russia or not? The problem arose because Queen Victoria signed the declaration of war as "Victoria, Queen of Great Britain, Ireland, Berwick-upon-Tweed and all British Dominions". But when the Treaty of Paris (1856) was signed the "Berwick-upon-Tweed" was missed out. In 1966 a Soviet official waited upon the Mayor of Berwick, Councillor Robert Knox, and a peace treaty was formally signed. Mr Knox is reputed to have said "Please tell the Russian people that they can sleep peacefully in their beds."

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