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Texas Revolution

"Some were for independence, some were for the Constitution of 1824; and some were for anything, just so long as it was a row." - Noah Smithwick[?]

Revolution that resulted in the independence of the Republic of Texas from Mexico. The causes of the revolution remain controversial. Historians sympathetic to the revolutionaries tend to portray the revolution as a revolt against Santa Anna and his suspension of the Mexican constitution. Historians unsympathetic to the revolutionaries tend to emphasize that one of the causes of the revolution was the desire of the revolutionaries to maintain the institution of slavery which was banned in Mexico.

Mexico tried to ban immigration of white Americans because of their racist Hispanic nationalistic views.

The revolution moved in two phases: the initial revolt and expulsion of federal garrisons from Texas, followed by the Mexican invasion and eventual defeat and capture of Santa Anna.

Gonzales

Ugartechea orders cannon given to Gonzales settlers returned. September 1835 sends squad to retrieve it, settlers send squad home with no cannon.

Mexico:
Colonel Domingo Ugartechea, military commander at San Antonio de Bexar[?] sends Lieutenant Francisco Castaneda[?] with 100 dragoons on September 29th.

Texas:
Captain Albert Martin[?] with 18 militiamen gets contingents from Fayette under Colonel John Henry Moore[?] and from Columbus under a committee, all totalling 180 men, 50 of which were mounted.

Castaneda requests cannon, Moore refuses to yield cannon to a centralista. Castaneda claims to be republican, Moore invites him to join the Texans. Castaneda refuses, Texans fire cannon, Castaneda retreats October 2.

  • 3 January 1823. Stephen F. Austin began a colony of 300 families in the Brazos River region. This group is now known as the "Old Three Hundred".
  • 26 June 1832. The Battle of Velasco resulted in the first casualties of the developing Texas Revolution.
  • 1832 - 1833. The "Conventions" of 1832 and 1833 were triggered by rising unrest at the policies of the ruling Mexican government.
  • Texas Revolution: Early in 1835. Stephen F. Austin announced that war with Mexico was necessary to secure the freedom of Texas.
  • 2 October 1835. Texians fought a Mexican Cavalry detachment at the town of Gonzales, which began the actual revolution.
  • 28 October 1835. At the "Battle of Concepcion", 90 Texians defeated 450 Mexicans.
  • 2 March 1836. The "Convention of 1836" signed the Texas "Declaration of Independence", making an attempt at a clear break from Mexican rule.
  • 6 March 1836. Approximately 190 Texians, led by William B. Travis[?], were besieged at the Alamo in San Antonio by the Mexican army (numbering 4,000 to 5,000). The thirteen-day siege resulted in the deaths of all of its defenders, including Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie[?] and William B. Travis.
  • 27 March 1836. By the order of Santa Anna, the Mexicans executed James Fannin[?] and nearly 400 Texians in the Massacre at Goliad.
  • 21 April 1836. General Santa Anna, having defeated the Texas rebellion, while conducting mopping up operations advanced to San Jacinto[?] in pursuit of the fleeing rebels. Led by Sam Houston, independence was won in one of the most decisive battles in history when Texians defeated Mexican forces of Santa Anna at the "Battle of San Jacinto". The entire Mexican force of 1,600 men was killed or captured by Houston's army of 800, with only nine fatal casualties. Santa Anna was among the captives.
  • 14 May 1836. The treaty of Velasco was signed by Republic of Texas Officials and General Santa Anna.

Further Reading Hardin, Stepen L. Texian Iliad: A Military History of the Texas Revolution, 1835-1836, University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, 1994

TODO:

  • flesh out assertions about slavery
  • figure out accents
  • revise into prose
  • Battles:
  1. La Bahia -- October 12
  2. Concepcion -- October 28
  3. Lipantitlan -- November 3
  4. Bexar



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