TEX (usually written TeX in plain text) is a typesetting system written by Donald Knuth, which is popular in academia[?], especially in the mathematics, physics and computer science communities. It has largely displaced Unix troff, the other favored formatter, in many Unix installations.
TeX is generally considered to be the best way to typeset complex mathematical formulas, but, especially in the form of LaTeX and other template packages, is now also being used for many other typesetting tasks. It can be used to compose mathematical expressions on Wikipedia pages: see Wikipedia:TeX markup.
The Art of Computer Programming. In a manifestation of the typical hackish urge to solve the problem at hand once and for all, he began to design his own typesetting language. He thought he would finish it on his sabbatical in 1978; he was wrong by only about 8 years. The language was finally frozen around 1985.
The first version of TeX was written in the SAIL programming language[?] to run on a PDP-10 under Stanford's WAITS operating system[?]. For later versions of TeX, Knuth invented the concept of literate programming, a way of producing compilable source code and high quality cross-linked documentation (typeset in TeX of course) from the same original file. The language used is called WEB and produces programs in Pascal.
TeX has an idiosyncratic version numbering system. Since version 3, updates have been indicated by adding an extra digit at the end of the decimal, so that the version number asymptotically approaches pi. The current version is 3.14159. This is a reflection of the fact that TeX is now very stable, and only minor updates are anticipated.
The TeX system has precise knowledge of the sizes of all characters and symbols, and using this information, it computes the optimal arrangement of letters per line and lines per page. It then produces a DVI file (for "device independent") containing the final locations of all characters. This dvi file can be printed directly given an appropriate printer driver, or it can be converted to other formats.
The ultimate reference works for TeX are the first two volumes of Knuth's Computers and Typesetting[?], The TeXbook and TeX: The Program (which includes the complete documented source code for TeX).
Knuth offers monetary awards to people who find and report a bug in it. The award per bug started at one cent and doubled every year until it was frozen at its current value of $327.68. This has not made Knuth poor, however, as there have been very few bugs and in any case a cheque proving that the owner found a bug in TeX is usually framed instead of cashed.
SAMPA: [tEx]). The X is meant to be the Greek letter χ. TeX is the abbreviation of τεχνε, Greek for "art" and "craft," which is also the source word of "technical". The name is properly typeset with the "E" below the baseline; systems that do not support subscript layout use the approximation "TeX". Fans like to proliferate names from the word "TeX" - such as TeXnician (user of TeX software), TeXhacker (TeX programmer), TeXmaster (competent TeX programmer), TeXhax, and TeXnique.
Then open a command line interpreter and type
TeX then creates a file myfile.dvi Use a viewer to look at the file. MikTeX for example contains a viewer called yap:
The viewer shows hello on a page. \bye is a TeX command which marks the end of the file and is not shown in the final output.
The dvi file can either be printed directly from the viewer or converted to a more common format such as PostScript using the dvips program.