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Sultan

A sultan is an Islamic monarch. Sultan is usually used by monarchs of Arabic, Turkish or Malaysian ethnicity as opposed to Khan or Shah. In modern English, the term is gradually being replaced by king. The sultan's domain is properly called a sultanate. The feminine form is sultana.

Countries formerly ruled by a sultan

Ottoman Empire
Sultanate of Iconium[?] (Seljuk Empire)
Philippines
Sultanate of Delhi

Modern countries ruled by sultans

Saudi Arabia (Although the Saudi Sultan wishes to be styled "king" in foreign countries).
Oman
Brunei
Malaysia (On a rotating basis)

See also: emir, Caliph



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