Encyclopedia > Silane

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Name Silane
Chemical formula SiH4
Appearance Colourless gas
Formula weight 32.1 amu
Melting point 88 K (-185 °C)
Boiling point 161 K (-112 °C)
Density 0.7 ×103 kg/m3 (liquid)
Solubility insoluble
ΔfH0gas ? kJ/mol
ΔfH0liquid ? kJ/mol
ΔfH0solid -1615 kJ/mol
S0gas, 1 bar ? J/mol·K
S0liquid, 1 bar ? J/mol·K
S0solid 283 J/mol·K
Ingestion Relatively low toxicity, but avoid exposure where possible.
Inhalation Relatively low toxicity: may cause coughing, hyperventilation.
Skin Irritant, may cause redness and swelling.
Eyes As for skin, may cause irritation.
More info Hazardous Chemical Database (http://ull.chemistry.uakron.edu/erd/chemicals/8/7034)
SI units were used where possible. Unless otherwise stated, standard conditions were used.

Disclaimer and references

Silane is a chemical compound and a group of compounds. As a compound it has the formula of SiH4; it is the silicon analogue of methane. Silane has a liquid density of 0.68, a melting point of -185C, and a boiling point of -112C. The gas is pyrophoric and spontaneously combusts in air even at low temperatures. Silane has few applications.

A silane is also the silicon analogue of a carbon alkane. Silanes consist of a chain of silicon atoms covalently bound to hydrogen atoms. The general formula of a silane is SinH2n+2

Silanes tend to be unstable because an Si-Si bond has a strength slightly lower than a C-C one. Oxygen decomposes silanes easily, as the silicon-oxygen bond is quite stable.

The nomenclature for naming silanes is regular, unlike alkanes. The name of each silane is given by a prefix for the number of silcon atoms (di, tri, tetra, penta, etc.) followed by the word silane. There is no prefix for one; it is understood.

Silanes can also be named like any other inorganic compound; in this naming system, silane would become silicon tetrahydride.

A cyclosilane[?] is a silane in a ring, just as a cycloalkane is an alkane in a ring.

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