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Politics of Cuba

Cuba is republic led by President Fidel Castro, who is Chief of State, Head of Government, First Secretary of the PCC, and commander in chief of the armed forces. Many aspects of Cuban life are controlled through the Communist Party and its affiliated mass organizations, the government bureaucracy, and the state security apparatus. The Ministry of Interior is the principal organ of state security and control.

According to the Cuban Constitution, the National Assembly of People's Power, and its Council of State when the body is not in session, has supreme authority in the Cuban system. Since the National Assembly meets only twice a year for a few days each time, the 31-member Council of State wields power. The Council of Ministers, through its nine-member executive committee, handles the administration of the of the state-controlled economy. Fidel Castro is President of the Council of State and Council of Ministers and his brother Raul serves as First Vice President of both bodies in addition to being Minister of Defense.

Although the constitution theoretically provides for independent courts, it explicitly subordinates them to the National Assembly and to the Council of State. The People's Supreme Court is the highest judicial body. Due process is often denied to Cuban citizens, particularly in cases involving political offenses. The constitution states that all legally recognized civil liberties can be denied to anyone who opposes the "decision of the Cuban people to build socialism."

The Communist Party is constitutionally recognized as Cuba's only legal political party. The party monopolizes all government positions, including judicial offices. Though not a formal requirement, party membership is virtually a de facto prerequisite for high-level official positions and professional advancement in most areas, although non-party members are sometimes allowed to serve in the National Assembly.

Cuba's state-controlled economy has failed to provide adequate housing to Cubans. Multi-family occupation of housing is common. Despite the damaging effects of a persistent embargo by the United States, Cuba has developed enviable systems of education and health care. The government also invests scarce resources to restore and preserve historic sites intended to promote the tourism sector of the economy.

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Cuba
conventional short form: Cuba
local long form: Republica de Cuba
local short form: Cuba

Data code: CU

Government type: Constitutional republic

Capital: Havana

Administrative divisions: 14 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia) and 1 special municipality* (municipio especial); Camaguey, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Ciudad de La Habana, Granma, Guantanamo, Holguin, Isla de la Juventud*, La Habana, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Rio, Sancti Spiritus, Santiago de Cuba, Villa Clara

Independence: May 20, 1902; Originally declared independence on October 10, 1868. (Spain ceded colonial authority January 1, 1899; occupied by the US from 1898 to 1902), and on three separate later occasions. The Isle of Pines was not ceded to Cuba until 1925.

National holiday: Rebellion Day, July 26 (1953); Liberation Day, January 1 (1959)

Constitution: February 24, 1976, amended July 1992

Legal system: Based on Spanish and American law, with large elements of Communist legal theory; does not accept compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

Suffrage: 16 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel Castro Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until February 24, 1976, when office was abolished; president since December 2, 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul Castro Ruz (since December 2, 1976); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers Fidel Castro Ruz (prime minister from February 1959 until February 24, 1976 when office was abolished; president since December 2, 1976); First Vice President of the Council of State and First Vice President of the Council of Ministers Gen. Raul Castro Ruz (since December 2, 1976); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the president of the Council of State, appointed by the National Assembly
note: there is also a Council of State whose members are elected by the National Assembly
elections: president and vice president elected by the National Assembly; election last held February 24, 1998 (next election unscheduled)
election results: Fidel Castro Ruz elected president; percent of legislative vote - 100%; Raul Castro Ruz elected vice president; percent of legislative vote - 100%

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly of People's Power or Asemblea Nacional del Poder Popular (601 seats, elected directly from slates approved by special candidacy commissions; members serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 11 January 1998 (next to be held in 2003)
election results: percent of vote - PCC 94.39%; seats - PCC 601

Judicial branch: People's Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo Popular; president, vice president, and other judges are elected by the National Assembly

Political parties and leaders: only party - Cuban Communist Party or PCC [Fidel Castro Ruz, first secretary]

International organization participation: CCC, ECLAC[?], FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, ICRM, IFAD, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, International Maritime Organization, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, LAES[?], LAIA[?], NAM, OAS (excluded from formal participation since 1962), OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Flag description: five equal horizontal bands of blue (top and bottom) alternating with white; a red equilateral triangle based on the hoist side bears a white, five-pointed star in the center. Similar in design to the flag of Puerto Rico.

See also : Cuba

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