Structure "Mitochondrion" literally means 'thread granule', which is what they look like under a light microscope; tiny rod-like structures present in the cytoplasm of all cells. The matrix contains soluble enzymes that catalyze (facilitate) the respiration of pyruvic acid and other small organic molecules. Parts of the Krebs Cycle occur within mitochondria. The matrix also contains several copies of the mitochondrial DNA (5-10 circular DNA molecules per copy), as well as special mitochondrial ribosomes, tRNAs, and proteins needed for DNA replication. When the cell divides, mitochondria replicate by fission. They also replicate if the long-term energy demands of a cell increase. For example, fat storage cells, which require little energy, have very few mitochondria, but energy-demanding muscle cells tend to have many. Mitochondria are generally theorised to be highly adapted symbiotic bacteria, probably belonging to the alpha-proteo bacteria (with the closest known candidate being Rickettsia, the causative agent of typhus), and are believed to have been incorporated only once (compare chloroplast).
Energy conversion The energy from food molecules (e.g., glucose) is used to produce NADH and FADH molecules in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle. This energy is transferred to oxygen (O2) in several steps. The protein complexes in the inner membrane (NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome c reductase, cytochrome c oxidase) that perform the transfer use the released energy to pump protons (H+) against a gradient (the concentration of protons in the intermembrane space is higher than that in the matrix). An active transport (using energy) is required to pump the protons against their physical tendency (in the "wrong" direction) from the matrix into the intermembrane space.
As the proton concentration increases in the intermembrane space, a strong diffusion gradient is built up. The only exit for these protons is through the ATP synthase complex. By transporting protons from the intermembrane space back into the matrix, the ATP synthase complex can make ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi). This process is called chemiosmosis and is an example of facilitated diffusion. Part of the 1997 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Paul D. Boyer[?] and John E. Walker[?] for their clarification of the working mechanism of ATP synthase.
Use in Genetic studies Because mitochondrion are in the cytoplasm, a person receives the mitochondrional DNA of only their mother in contrast to nuclear DNA of both parents. This fact makes mitochondrional DNA a useful tool for investigating the genetic history of populations.