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Gupta Empire

The origins of the Guptas are shrouded in obscurity. The Chinese traveler I-tsing provides the first evidence of the Gupta kingdom in Magadha. He came to India in A.D. 672 and heard of `Maharaja Sri-Gupta[?]' who built a temple for Chinese pilgrims near Mrigasikhavana. I-tsing[?] gives the date for this event merely as `500 years before'. This does not match with other sources and hence we can assume that I-tsing[?]'s computation was a mere guess.

The most like date for the reign of Sri-Gupta is c. 240-280 A.D. His successor Ghatotkacha ruled probably from c. 280-319 A.D. In contrast to his successor he is also referred to in inscriptions as `Maharaja'.

At the beginning of the 4th century the Guptas ruled a few small kingdoms in Magadha[?] and Uttar Pradesh. Ghatotkacha (c. 280-319 A.D.), had a son named Chandragupta. In a breakthrough deal Chandragupta was married to Kumaradevi[?], a Lichchhavi[?] - the main power in Magadha. With a dowry of the kingdom of Magadha (capital Pataliputra[?]) and an alliance with the Lichchhavis, Chandragupta set about expanding his power, conquering much of Magadha, Prayaga[?] and Saketa[?]. He established a realm stretching from the Ganges to Allahabad[?] by 320. Chandragupta is the first of the Guptas to be referred to as `Maharajadhiraja' or `King of Kings'.

Chandragupta died in 335 and was succeeded by his son Samudragupta, a tireless conquerer. He took the kingdoms of Shichchhatra[?] and Padmavati[?] early in his reign. He then took the Kingdom of Kota[?] and attacked the tribes in Malvas[?], the Yaudheyas, the Arjunayanas, the Maduras and the Abhiras. By his death in 380 he had incorporated over twenty kingdoms into his realm, his rule extended from the Himalayas to the river Narmada[?] and from the Brahmaputra[?] to the Yamuna[?]. He gave himself the titles King of Kings and World Monarch. He was succeeded by his son Ramagupta[?], who was captured by the Saka Satraps (Kshatrapas) and was soon succeeded by his brother Chandragupta II.

Chandragupta II, the Son of Power (Vikramaditya), ruled until 413. He married the daughter of the king of Deccan[?], Rudrasena II[?], and gained a valuable ally. Only marginally less war-like than his father he expanded his realm westwards, defeating the Saka Satraps of Malwa[?], Gujarat and Saurashtra in a campaign lasting until 409, but with his main opponent Rudrasimha III[?] defeated by 395, and crushing the Bengal (Vanga) chiefdoms. This extended his control from coast-to-coast, established a second (trading) capital at Ujjain[?] and was the high point of the empire. Despite the creation of the empire through war the realm is remembered for the great growth in Hindu art, literature, culture and science, especially during the reign of Chandragupta II. Much of advances was recorded by the Chinese scholar and traveller Fa-hsien[?]. Chandragupta II was succeeded by his son Kumaragupta[?].

Kumaragupta, known as the Mahendraditya, ruled until 455. Towards the end of his reign a tribe in the Nerbudda valley, the Pushyamitras, rose in power to threaten the empire. Kumaragupta's successor Skandagupta[?] defeated this threat but then was faced with invading Huns from the north-west. The expense of the wars drained the regime and Skandagupta is usually considered the last of the great rulers. He died in 480 and was succeeded by his son Narasimhagupta[?] Baladitya. Much of the empire was over-run by the Huns by 500.

Narasimhagupta was followed by Buddhagupta[?] and Purugupta[?]. The last recognized ruler was Vishnugupta[?], reigning from 540 to 550.

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