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Kodo Sawaki practicing zazen
Sitting meditation or zazen (座禅; literally 'sit, contemplate') is the most important component of Zen, a meditative discipline practitioners perform to calm the body and the mind. Zazen is performed on a mat called zabuton while sitting on a cushion called zafu. The common positions used to sit on the zafu are:
  • kekkafuza (full-lotus)
  • hankafuza (half-lotus)
  • burmese
  • seiza (a position in which the legs are folded under the body when seated on a bench or zafu).

The hands are placed together in the cosmic mudra. During zazen, diaphramatic breathing is practiced and the eyes are lowered, being neither fully open nor shut. These long periods of zazen, usually performed in groups at a temple called a Zendo, alternate with periods of kinhin (walking meditation). The beginning of a zen period is announced by ringing a bell three times (shijosho), followed by the various practices of discipline and the end of zazen, which is announced by ringing the bell once (hozensho). Before and after sitting on the zafu, zen practitioners gassho (palms together in front of the chest) bow to the cushion, fellow practitioners and teacher.

See also: Buddhism

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