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Use of poison gas in World War I

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Gas Casualties

Nation Casualties (Estimated)
Fatal Non-Fatal
Russia 50,000 400,000
Germany 10,000 190,000
France 8,000 182,000
Britain 8,000 181,000
Austria-Hungary 3,000 97,000
USA 1,500 71,500
Italy 4,500 55,000

British gas casualties (Western Front)

Date Agent Casualties (Official)
Fatal Non-fatal
Apr - May 1915 Chlorine 350 7,000
May 1915 - Jun 1916 Lachrymants 0 0
Dec 1916 - Aug 1916 Chlorine 1,013 4,207
Jul 1916 - Jul 1917 Various 532 8,806
Jul 1917 - Nov 1918 Mustard gas 4,086 160,526

Gases used in WW I

A=Allies, G=Germany/Austria-Hungary

Name First use Type Used by
Chlorine 1915 Irritant/Lung Both
Phosgene 1915 Both
Chlormethyl chloroformate[?] 1915 Both
Trichlormethyl chloroformate[?] 1916 Both
Chloropicrin[?] 1916 Both
Stannic chloride[?] 1916 A
Phenyl chloride[?] 1917 G
Dichloromethyl ether[?] 1918 G
Diphenyl chlorasine[?] 1917 Irritant/Sternutatory G
Ethyl dichlorarsine[?] 1918 G
Ethyl carbazol[?] 1918 G
Benzyl bromide[?] 1915 Lachrymatory G
Xylyl bromide[?] 1915 G
Methyl chlorosulphonate[?] 1915 G
Ethyl iodoacetate[?] 1916 A
Bromacetone[?] 1916 Both
Methyl-ethyl ketone[?] 1916 G
Acrolein[?] 1916 A
Hydrocyanic acid[?] 1916 Paralysing A
Sulphuretted hydrogen[?] 1916 A
Mustard gas 1917 Vesicant Both

Estimated production of gases (by type)

Nation Production (metric tons)
Irritant[?] Lachrymatory[?] Vesicant[?] Total
Austria-H 5,080 255 - 5,335
Britain 23,870 1,010 520 25,400
France 34,540 810 2,040 37,390
Germany 55,880 3,050 10,160 69,090
Italy 4,070 205 - 4,275
Russia 3,550 155 - 3705
USA 5,590 5 175 5,770



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