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Transportation in Japan

Seven Japan Railway companies, once state owned until 1987, cover most parts of Japan. There also are many private rail companies and companies funded by regional governments and private companies.

Total railways of 23,670.7 km include entirely electrified 2,893.1 km of 1.435-m standard gauge and 89.8 km of 1.372-m narrow gauge, which 89.8 km of it is electrified. Half of 20,656.8 km 1.067-m gauge and 3.6 km of 31 km 0.762-m gauge are electrified (1994).

Kobe, Kyoto, Nagoya, Osaka, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Yokohama, Sendai and Tokyo have metro systems.

Japan has 1,152,207 km of highways with 863,003 km (including 6,114 km of expressways) paved and 289,204 km of unpaved ways (1997 est.).

Waterways are about 1,770 km; seagoing craft ply all coastal inland seas.

Japan has 84 km of pipelines for crude oil, 322 km for petroleum products, and 1,800 km for natural gas.

Major seaports include Akita, Amagasaki[?], Chiba, Hachinohe[?], Hakodate, Higashi-Harima[?], Himeji[?], Hiroshima, Kawasaki, Kinuura[?], Kobe, Kushiro[?], Mizushima[?], Moji[?], Nagoya, Osaka, Sakai[?], Sakaide[?], Shimizu[?], Tokyo, and Tomakomai[?].

Japan has 662 ships of 1,000 GRT or over, totaling 13,039,488 GRT[?] or 18,024,969 DWT[?]. There are 146 bulk ships, 49 cargo[?], 13 chemical tankers, 16 combination bulk, 4 with combination of ore and oil, 25 container, 45 liquified gas[?], 9 passenger[?], 2 passenger and cargo combination ships, 214 petroleum tankers, 22 refrigerated cargo, 48 roll-on/roll-off, 9 short-sea passenger, and 60 vehicle carriers (1999 est.).

Major airports include Narita Airport, Haneda Airport, Itami Airport and Kansai International Airport. 14 heliports are estimated to exist (1999).

See also: Japan

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