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A sea turtle
Scientific classification
Order: Chelonia
Testudinidae - Land tortoises
Emydidae - Freshwater turtles
Gopherus - North American tortoises
Trionychidae - Soft-shelled turtles
Pleurodira - Side-necked turtles
Chelydridae - Snapping turtles[?]
Kinosteron - Mud turtles
Sternotherus - Musk turtles
Staurotypus - Giant Musk turtles[?]
Claudius - Narrow-bridged Mud turtles
Cheloniidae - Sea turtles

Turtles, also called tortoises and terrapins, are reptiles most of whose body is shielded by a special bony shell developed from their ribs. All living turtles are members of the the order Chelonia, as well as the superorder Testudines, which includes both living and extinct varieties of turtle.

There are two major groups of turtles: sea turtles, which grow to large sizes and live in the oceans in the temperate and tropical regions of the earth, and fresh-water turtles.

Fresh-water turtles which spend the majority of their time on the land are generally called tortoises. In the United Kingdom aquatic fresh-water turtles are known as terrapins. Fresh-water turtles are generally much smaller, ranging in size from a few centimeters to a few feet long. All turtles have a protective shell around their bodies. The top part of their case is called the carapace[?], the underside is the plastron[?], and the two are connected by the bridge.

The size of turtles can vary from a few centimetres to up to two meters. Turtles generally live a long time; some individuals are known to have lived longer than 150 years.

The first turtles already existed in the era of the dinosaurs, some 200 million years ago. Turtles are the only surviving branch of the even more ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as the procolophonoids[?], millerettids[?] and pareiasaurs[?]. Most of the anapsids became extinct in the late Permian period, with the exception of the procolophonoids[?] and the precursors of the testudines (turtles).

Even though they spend large amounts of their lives underwater, turtles are air-breathing reptiles, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs with fresh air. They also spend part of their lives on dry land. Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry sandy beaches, and are highly endangered largely as a result of beach development.

Further reading

There is an American folk-rock band called The Turtles, best known for the 1967 hit "Happy Together".

A turtle is a type of robot which moves round on wheels on a flat surface. Its movements can be programmed in using a computer or it can programmed to perform pseudorandom movements. When it is low on energy it will return to its home for a power up. There have been recently ideas to try to use turtles to explain evolution. What happens is something like this: You have several turtles in a ring. They all have different functions. Some of them (the carnivores) will try to energy from the other turtles. Somehow the turtles reproduce other turtles (details not known, perhaps there are 'dead turles' which encounter a 'live' turtle).

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