|Mean distance from Earth||150,000,000 km|
|Visual brightness (V)||-26.8m|
|Relative diameter (dS/dE)||109|
|Surface area||6.09 × 1012 km2|
|Volume||1.41 × 1027 m3|
|Mass||1.9891 × 1030 kg|
|Relative mass to Earth||333,400|
|Density||1411 kg m-3|
|Relative density to Earth||0.26|
|Relative density to water||1.409|
|Surface gravity||274 m s-2|
|Relative surface gravity||27.9 g|
|Surface temperature||5780 K|
|Temperature of corona||5 × 106 K|
|Luminosity (LS)||3.827 × 1026 J s-1|
|Period of rotation|
|At equator:||27d 6h 36m|
|At 30° latitude:||28d 4h 48m|
|At 60° latitude:||30d 19h 12m|
|At 75° latitude:||31d 19h 12m|
|Period of orbit around
|2.2 × 108 years|
The Sun, sometimes called Sol, is the star in our solar system. The planet Earth and all of her sister planets, both the other terrestrial planets and the gas giants, orbit the Sun. Other bodies that orbit the Sun include asteroids, meteoroids, comets, Trans-Neptunian objects, and, of course, dust.
The Sun is a main sequence star, with a spectral class of G2, meaning that it is somewhat bigger and hotter than the average star but far smaller than a red giant star. A G2 star has a main sequence lifetime of about 10 billion years, and the Sun is probably about 5 billion years old, as determined by nucleocosmochronology.
At the center of the Sun, where its density is 1.5 × 105 kg m-3, thermonuclear reactions (nuclear fusion) convert hydrogen into helium. 3.9 × 1045 atoms undergo nuclear reactions there every second. This releases energy which escapes from the surface of the Sun as light. Physicists are able to replicate thermonuclear reactions with hydrogen bombs. Sustained nuclear fusion on earth for electricity generation may be possible in the future, with nuclear fusion reactors.
All matter in the Sun is in the form of plasma due to its extreme temperature. This makes it possible for the sun to rotate faster at its equator than it does at higher latitudes, since the Sun is not a solid body. The differential rotation of the Sun's latitudes causes its magnetic field lines to become twisted together over time, causing magnetic field loops to erupt from the sun's surface and trigger the formation of the Sun's dramatic sunspots and solar prominences[?].
For some time it was thought that the number of neutrinos produced by the nuclear reaction in the Sun was only one third of the number predicted by theory, a result that was termed the solar neutrino problem. When it was recently found that neutrinos had mass, and could therefore transform into harder-to-detect varieties of neutrinos while en route from the Sun to Earth, measurement and theory were reconciled.
Observation of the Sun can reveal such phenomena as:
Several newspapers are called The Sun.
Sun is a commonly used name for the computer company Sun Microsystems.