1. The use of signals for controlling communications.
2. In a telecommunications network, the information exchange concerning the establishment and control of a connection and the management of the network, in contrast to user information transfer.
3. The sending of a signal from the transmitting end of a circuit to inform a user at the receiving end that a message is to be sent.
Source: from Federal Standard 1037C and from MIL-STD-188
... Novikov[?] (Russia, 1901 - 1935)
Kristen Nygaard (Norway, 1926 - 2002)
Mikhail Vasilievich Ostrogradsky (Russia, 1801 - 1862)
Pappus of Alexandria[?] ...
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