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Samuel Butler

There are in fact two notable Samuel Butlers, both of them English authors, both satirists:

The first Samuel Butler (1612-1680) was born in or near the town of Upton upon Severn in Worcestershire: he is remembered now for a satirical poem on Puritanism entitled "Hudibras[?]". There is a memorial plaque to him in the small village church of Strensham, Worcestershire.

Samuel Butler (1835-1902), author

The second Samuel Butler was born on December 4, 1835, in Langar Rectory, near Bingham, Nottinghamshire, England. As a young man he moved to the then new colony of New Zealand, and wrote a description of his life there entitled A First Year in Canterbury Setttlement. On his return to England from New Zealand, his satirical novel Erewhon was published anonymously, causing some speculation as to the identity of the author; when Butler was revealed as the author, there was some disappointment that it was not any of the more famous personages speculated about.

Erewhon made Butler a well-known figure, and he wrote a number of other books, including a not so successful sequel, Erewhon Revisited[?]. His semi-autobiographical novel The Way of All Flesh was not published until after his death, as he considered its tone of attack on Victorian hypocrisy would be too contentious.

Erewhon revealed Butler's long interest in Darwin's theories of biological evolution, though Butler spent a great deal of time criticising Darwin, not least because he believed that Charles had not sufficiently acknowledged his grandfather Erasmus Darwin's contibution to the origins of the theory.

He developed a theory that the Odyssey was written by a young Sicilian woman, and that the scenes of the poem were based on the coast of Sicily and its nearby islands. He described the evidence for this theory in his The Authoress of the Odyssey[?] (1897) and in the introduction and footnotes to his translation of the Odyssey. Butler also translated the Iliad.

Samuel Butler died on June 18, 1902, in London, England.


Links: A first year...[?], Erewhon, Erewhon Revisited[?], The Way of All Flesh and several other of his works are available for free download from Project Gutenberg at www.gutenberg.net (http://www.gutenberg.net).

A biography by his friend Henry Festing Jones[?] is also available from Project Gutenberg: [1] (http://digital.library.upenn.edu/webbin/gutbook/lookup?num=2993)

The Authoress of the Odyssey is apparently out of print and not online; however, Butler's translations of the Odyssey and Iliad are available from Project Gutenberg.

All Wikipedia text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

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