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Positivism is the name for (at least) two philosophical directions. They have in common the idea of a science without theology or metaphysics, based only on facts about the physical / material world.

Positivism is also the name of a legal view, usually called legal positivism[?]. Against natural law, it claims that a legal system can be defined independently of evaluative terms or propositions. Sometimes legal positivism is also understood as the view that the law must be obeyed, whatever its content. The late Carlos Nino used to distinguish between these two varieties by calling the former 'methodological' and the latter 'ideological', claiming that only the first was philosophically defensible.

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