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Politics of Sudan

Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
conventional short form: Sudan
local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan (Arabic: جمهوريّة السّودان)
local short form: As-Sudan (Arabic: السّودان)
former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

Data code: SU

Government type: transitional - previously ruling military junta; presidential and National Assembly elections held in March 1996; new constitution drafted by Presidential Committee, went into effect on 30 June 1998 after being approved in nationwide referendum

Capital: Khartoum

Administrative divisions: 26 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrat, Al Jazirah, Al Khartum, Al Qadarif, Al Wahdah, An Nil al Abyad, An Nil al Azraq, Ash Shamaliyah, Bahr al Jabal, Gharb al Istiwa'iyah, Gharb Bahr al Ghazal, Gharb Darfur, Gharb Kurdufan, Janub Darfur, Janub Kurdufan, Junqali, Kassala, Nahr an Nil, Shamal Bahr al Ghazal, Shamal Darfur, Shamal Kurdufan, Sharq al Istiwa'iyah, Sinnar, Warab

Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)

National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)

Constitution: 12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989; new constitution implemented on 30 June 1998 partially suspended 12 December 1999 by President BASHIR

Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 January 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law in the northern states; Islamic law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: NA years of age; universal, but noncompulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (عمر حسن أحمد البشير) (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (علي عثمان محمد طه) (since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President (Police) Maj. Gen. George KONGOR AROP (since NA February 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President (Police) Maj. Gen. George KONGOR AROP (since NA February 1994); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note - President BASHIR's government is dominated by members of Sudan's National Islamic Front (NIF), a fundamentalist political organization formed from the Muslim Brotherhood in 1986; in 1998, the NIF created the National Congress as its legal front; the National Congress/NIF dominates much of Khartoum's overall domestic and foreign policies; President BASHIR named a new cabinet on 20 April 1996 which includes members of the National Islamic Front, serving and retired military officers, and civilian technocrats; on 8 March 1998, he reshuffled the cabinet and brought in several former rebel and opposition members as ministers; he reshuffled his cabinet again on 24 January 2000 but announced few changes
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 6-17 March 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
election results: Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR elected president; percent of vote - Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR 75.7%; note - about forty other candidates ran for president
note: BASHIR, as chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC), assumed power on 30 June 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until 16 October 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; upon its dissolution on 16 October 1993, the RCC's executive and legislative powers were devolved to the president and the Transitional National Assembly (TNA), Sudan's appointed legislative body, which has since been replaced by the National Assembly elected in March 1996; on 12 December 1999 BASHIR dismissed the National Assembly during an internal power struggle between the president and speaker of the Parliament Hasan al-TURABI

Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (400 seats; 275 elected by popular vote, 125 elected by a supra assembly of interest groups known as the National Congress)
elections: last held 6-17 March 1996 (next scheduled for NA 2000)
election results: NA; the March 1996 elections were held on a nonparty basis; parties are banned in the new National Assembly
note: on 12 December 1999, President BASHIR sent troops to take over parliament

Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Special Revolutionary Courts

Political parties and leaders: political parties were banned following 30 June 1989 coup, however, political "associations" are allowed under a new law drafted in 1998 and implemented on 1 January 1999 and include - National Congress [Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR]
note: the political association law is currently under review

Political pressure groups and leaders: National Islamic Front or NIF [Hasan al-TURABI] (the National Congress operates as its legal front)

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO (observer)

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

See also : Sudan

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